In the hard-edged world of international relations, the pursuit of one’s national interests is called Realpolitik. In U.S.-Pakistan relations, it’s called duplicity and betrayal. Pakistan’s decision makers continue to seek leverage for favorable (or to avoid unfavorable) outcomes in Afghanistan and to maintain ties with anti-India extremist groups that cost one penny for every dollar required for Indian countermeasures. These policies have been deeply injurious to Pakistan, but carrots and sticks won’t change them if Rawalpindi remains convinced that they are essential.
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