Before the advent of nuclear weapon capabilities on the subcontinent, unresolved grievances over Kashmir resulted in wars. With the bomb’s appearance, unresolved grievances have led to mass casualty terrorism, crises and one limited conventional war. Crises have recurred because underlying grievances in both Pakistan and India are reaffirmed from one crisis to the next.
So far, the most serious crises on the subcontinent were the 1999 Kargil War and the 2001-2 Twin Peaks crisis. These back-to-back crises came soon after India and Pakistan advertised their nuclear capabilities with underground tests. Significantly, there have been no crises on the subcontinent since the 2008 Mumbai attacks.
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