Peacekeeping in Africa has grown dramatically over the last five years, with the continent hosting more peacekeepers than any other region. In early 2005, the United Nations led seven peace operations there, in Burundi, Côte d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ethiopia/Eritrea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and the Western Sahara, with an eighth planned for Sudan.1 With increased demand for peace operations worldwide, including large and complex missions led by multinational coalitions, attention has focused on the ability of the United Nations and African organizations to respond to crises and to manage peacekeeping operations effectively.
Fueled by ambitious leadership and prompted by multiple conflicts, the African Union (AU) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) are developing more capacity to tackle regional peace and security questions. The AU and ECOWAS successfully deployed troops and led recent operations in Côte d’Ivoire, Burundi, Liberia and Sudan. Donor governments are offering support bilaterally, through regional venues, and via the Group of 8 (G8), to leverage African national, subregional and continent-wide capacities for such efforts.
Ten years after the Rwandan genocide, the horrific crisis in Sudan further heightens international attention on questions of intervention and peace operations. Which African groups have the will and mechanisms to plan, deploy, manage, and sustain peace operations? What is the United Nations’ relationship with the AU and ECOWAS? What are their capacities for peace operations and how do they – or can they – work together with the United Nations? This study examines these questions.