Fact Sheet

Spent Nuclear Fuel in Finland

Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Finland

  • June 1, 2020
  • 8:48 pm


2,098 tHM spent nuclear fuel in storage (2016)
2,561 tHM spent nuclear fuel projected by 2050
1977 First year of commercial nuclear operation
4 operating nuclear power reactors
0 operating research and test reactors
5th nuclear power reactor under construction and plans for a 6th are underway
2.78 GW(e) installed nuclear capacity (2018)
32.45% nuclear share of domestic energy production (2018)

Regulator: STUK
Power Operator: Fortum Power and Heat Oy (FPH), Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO)

Nuclear Power stations in Finland (as of 2019)

Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel


  • NPP SNF is stored onsite in pools for 1-5 years before being transferred to interim wet storage onsite
  • In 2016 construction of a DGR began at the selected Olkiluoto nuclear site
  • Investigations at the ONKALO underground rock characterization facility have been ongoing since construction began in 2004
  • Disposal is intended to occur from the 2020s to the 2120s before closure
  • The VTT Technical Research Centre, government organizations, universities, and operators conducted a €16 million project from 2015-2018 examining nuclear waste technologies, long-term safety, and “nuclear waste management and society”


  • Finland signed the Joint Convention in 1997 and accepted in 2000
  • Finland acceded to Euratom’s safeguards agreement (INFCIRC/193) in 1995, and the additional protocol entered into force in 2004
  • Finland has a “once-through” fuel cycle policy with no reprocessing; spent fuel is considered a form of waste
  • Funds for waste research are allocated in proportion to State Nuclear Waste Management Fund targets
  • According to the 1978 decision of the Finnish Government, each producer of nuclear waste – in practice the nuclear power companies – is responsible for the management of spent fuel
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