Nearly a decade later, however, the global nuclear security landscape has changed. Nuclear security regulations and practices have improved. International institutions and norms supporting global nuclear security architecture are stronger. Countries have made new political commitments to strengthening their nuclear security. Legally binding agreements are more widely subscribed than they were before. Meanwhile, new global threats have surfaced, presenting new challenges to physical protection systems. A range of emerging technologies creates new opportunities, but also new risks.
In light of these evolving conditions, and to benchmark against security improvements in the non- nuclear realm, the IAEA nuclear security recommendations published nearly a decade ago should be updated. This paper will review changes in the nuclear security environment—including evaluations of consensus around physical protection practices, international agreements, and threats—since INFCIRC/225/Rev. 5 was published. It will then make recommendations for how to build upon existing IAEA nuclear security recommendations in a sixth revision of INFCIRC/225.