Objective of this Code of Conduct:
use of outer space.
achieving progress in the exploration and use of outer space for
global economic progress, commercial advancement, scientific research,
sustainable development, as well as national, regional and international
of the Charter, which obliges all members to refrain in their
international relations from the threat or use of force against the
territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any
other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations;
under which the United Nations Security Council may mandate action by
air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore
international peace and security;
states under Article 51 of the Charter;
of 1967, including:
- the exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other
celestial bodies, shall be carried out for the benefit and in the
interests of all countries,
- outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies,
shall be free for exploration and use by all States without
discrimination of any kind, on a basis of equality and in accordance
with international law,
- outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, is
not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means
of use or occupation, or by any other means, in the exploration and use
of outer space, States Parties to the Treaty shall be guided by the
principle of co-operation and mutual assistance and shall conduct all
their activities in outer space with due regard to the corresponding
interests of all other States Parties to the Treaty;
- State Parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit
around the Earth any objects carrying weapons of mass destruction;
- the moon and other celestial bodies shall be used by all States
Parties to the Treaty exclusively for peaceful purposes.
disarmament and arms control treaties, conventions and regimes;
injurious consequences for international peace, security and stability;
signature, ratification, accession, and adherence to all legal
instruments governing outer space, including:
- 1967 Outer Space Treaty
- 1968 Rescue Agreement
- 1972 Liability Convention
- 1976 Registration Convention
- 1984 Moon Agreement
outer space, including the 1994 Constitution of International
Telecommunications Union; the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty; the 1988
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty; the 1994 Strategic Arms
Reduction Treaty; and the 2003 Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions.
operations and recognizing the importance of the 2007 Space Debris
Mitigation Guidelines of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of
the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space;
to assist in the safe and orderly operation of outer space activities;
not in any way diminish the need for additional international legal
instruments that preserve, advance and guarantee the exploration and use
of outer space for peaceful purposes;
- The right of access to space for exploration or other peaceful
- The right of safe and interference-free space operations,
including military support functions.
- The right of self-defense as enumerated in the Charter of the
- The right to be informed on matters pertaining to the
objectives and purposes of this Code of Conduct.
- The right of consultation on matters of concern and the proper
implementation of this Code of Conduct.
- The responsibility to respect the rights of other space-faring
states and legitimate stakeholders.
- The responsibility to regulate stakeholders that operate within
their territory or that use their space launch services in conformity
with the objectives and purposes of this Code of Conduct.
- Each state has the responsibility to regulate the behavior of
its nationals in conformity with the objectives and purposes of this
Code of Conduct, wherever those actions occur.
- The responsibility to develop and abide by rules of safe space
operation and traffic management.
- The responsibility to share information related to safe space
operations and traffic management and to enhance cooperation on space
- The responsibility to mitigate and minimize space debris in
accordance with the best practices established by the international
community in such agreements as the Inter-Agency Debris Coordination
Committee guidelines and guidelines of the Scientific and Technical
Subcommittee of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of
- The responsibility to refrain from harmful interference against
- The responsibility to consult with other space-faring states
regarding activities of concern in space and to enhance cooperation to
advance the objectives and purposes of this Code of Conduct.
The responsibility to establish consultative procedures to address
and resolve questions relating to compliance with this Code of Conduct,
and to agree upon such additional measures as may be necessary to
improve the viability and effectiveness of this Code of Conduct.
Canada, France, Japan, Russia and the United States in October 2007.
The group included Setsuko Aoki of Keio University, Alexei Arbatov of
the Carnegie Moscow Center, Vladimir Dvorkin of the Center for Policy
Studies in Russia, Trevor Findlay of the Canadian Centre for Treaty
Compliance, Katsuhisa Furukawa of the Japan Science and Technology
Agency, Scott Lofquist-Morgan of the Canadian Centre for Treaty
Compliance, Laurence Nardon of the French Institute of International
Relations, and Sergei Oznobistchev of the Institute of Strategic Studies
and Analysis. NGO participants worked on this project in a personal
capacity. Their support for the model Code of Conduct therefore does not
reflect endorsements by their institutions or governments