India and the United States have steadily expanded the ambit of their strategic engagement over the past two decades, driven by a growing convergence in their economic and security outlooks and priorities. And a crucial element that underlines and propels closer ties is classified as “dual-use” items. This refers to products, components, technology, equipment and software used in the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) and their delivery systems that also have legitimate industrial use. Dual-use items are strictly regulated to verify the bona fides of the end-user, and the civilian end-use of these items. This interlocking web of regulations is collectively termed as export controls or STCs (strategic trade controls).