US Foreign Policy

On the Move: Migration Challenges in the Indian Ocean Littoral

in Program

On the Move: Migration Challenges in the Indian Ocean Littoral is the product of Stimson’s work on migration over the past year, and it points to how the migration agenda is evolving and adapting to 21st century challenges. Traditionally, migration is separated into two major categories: voluntary, which is often economically motivated and sometimes temporary; and forced, which involves longer term crises of refugees and IDPs. Policy is created according to this paradigm to address specific and often acute issues such as economic needs or human rights protection. In reality, however, the status of migrants is fluid, and their designations and needs may change several times during the migration experience. Attempts to neatly define migrant groups and to separately serve or manage them are only marginally successful. The gaps in service delivery and governance are vast. In this volume, experts from East Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Stimson Center address the array of complex challenges of 21st century migration and the crosscutting factors characterizing the economic, political, and security dimensions of voluntary and forced migration. 

Stimson’s Regional Voices: Transnational Challenges project is devoted to enhancing the information and analysis available to policymakers about emerging transnational security challenges in the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and East Africa. For more information on the project, please visit

ISBN: 978-0-9821935-6-3

Cover photos: Associated Press and Gustavo Montes de Oca,

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