Nuclear South Asia: Course Lecturers

Nuclear South Asia: Course Lecturers

Course lecturers include:

  • Rizwana Abbasi, Assistant Professor, Department of Strategic and Nuclear Studies, National Defence University
  • James Acton, Co-Director, Nuclear Policy Program, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
  • Mansoor Ahmed, Stanton Nuclear Security Junior Faculty Fellow, Belfer Center, Harvard University
  • Rabia Akhtar, Director, Centre for Security, Strategy, and Policy Research, University of Lahore
  • Zamir Akram, Former Pakistani Ambassador
  • Linton Brooks, Chief U.S. Negotiator, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty
  • Ahsan Butt, Assistant Professor of Government and Politics, Department of Public and International Affairs, George Mason University
  • Stephen Cohen, Senior Fellow, The India Project, Foreign Policy Program, Brookings Institution
  • Raj Chengappa, Group Editorial Director (Publishing), India Today Group
  • Christopher Clary, Assistant Professor, University at Albany
  • Lisa Curtis, Former Senior Adviser to the Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian Affairs, U.S. Department of State
  • Toby Dalton, Co-Director, Nuclear Policy Program, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
  • Robert Einhorn, Former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Nonproliferation
  • Thomas Fingar, Former Chairman, U.S. Intelligence Council
  • Mark Fitzpatrick, Executive Director, IISS-Americas
  • Francis Gavin, Frank Stanton Chair in Nuclear Security Policy Studies and Professor of Political Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Jack Gill, Former South Asia Foreign Area Officer, U.S. Army
  • Charles Glaser, Director, Institute for Security and Conflict Studies, George Washington University
  • Anish Goel, Senior Fellow, International Security Program, New America
  • Devin Hagerty, Professor of Political Science, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
  • Syed Azmat Hassan, Former Pakistani Ambassador
  • Siegfried Hecker, Former Director, Los Alamos National Laboratory
  • Pervez Hoodbhoy, Distinguished Professor of Physics and Mathematics, Forman Christian College
  • Touqir Hussain, Former Pakistani Ambassador
  • Zahid Imroz, Former Visiting Research Fellow, George Washington University
  • Abhijit Iyer-Mitra, Visiting Fellow, Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies
  • Neil Joeck, Research Scholar, Institute of International Studies, University of California, Berkeley
  • Manoj Joshi, Distinguished Fellow, Observer Research Foundation
  • Sharad Joshi, Assistant Professor of Nonproliferation and Terrorism Studies, Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey
  • S. Paul Kapur, Professor, Department of National Security Affairs, U.S. Naval Postgraduate School
  • Reshmi Kazi, Associate Fellow, Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses
  • Feroz Khan, Former Director, Arms Control and Disarmament Affairs, Strategic Plans Division, Pakistani Army
  • Riaz Khan, Former Pakistani Foreign Secretary
  • Michael Krepon, Co-Founder, Stimson Center
  • Walter Ladwig, Assistant Professor, International Relations, King's College London
  • Sameer Lalwani, Senior Associate and Deputy Director, South Asia Program
  • Jeffrey Lewis, Adjunct Professor and Director of East Asia Nonproliferation Proram, James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies
  • Thomas Lynch, Distinguished Research Fellow for South Asia and the Near East, Center for Strategic Research, Institute of National Strategic Studies, National Defense University
  • Julia Macdonald, Post-Doctoral Fellow, University of Pennsylvania, Perry World House
  • Salma Malik, Professor, Quaid-i-Azam University
  • Daniel Markey, Former Member, U.S. Secretary of State's Policy Planning Staff
  • Nicholas Miller, Dean’s Assistant Professor of Nuclear Security and Policy, Watson Institute, Brown University
  • Sitakanta Mishra, Assistant Professor, School of Liberal Studies, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University
  • C. Raja Mohan, Director, Carnegie India
  • Vipin Narang, Mitsui Career Development Associate Professor of Political Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Ruhee Neog, Assistant Director, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies
  • George Perkovich, Vice President for Studies, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
  • Steven Pifer, Director, Arms Control and Non-Proliferation Initiative, Brookings Institution
  • Barry Posen, Ford International Professor of Political Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Shaukat Qadir, Pakistani Army (Ret.)
  • Rajesh Rajagopalan, Professor in International Politics, Jawaharlal Nehru University
  • Rajeswari Rajagopalan, Senior Fellow and Head of the Nuclear and Space Policy Initiative, Observer Research Foundation 
  • Robin Raphel, Former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian Affairs
  • Hasan Askari Rizvi, Professor Emeritus, Punjab University
  • Scott Sagan, The Caroline S.G. Munro Professor of Political Science, Stanford University
  • Naeem Salik, Senior Fellow, Centre for International Strategic Studies
  • Nilanthi Samaranayake, Strategic Studies Analyst, Center for Naval Analyses
  • Amy Sands, Executive Director, Research Centers and Initiatives, Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey
  • Jaganath Sankaran, Research Scholar, Center for International Security Studies at the University of Maryland
  • Shyam Saran, Former Foreign Secretary of India
  • Jayita Sarkar, Associate, Belfer Center, Harvard University
  • Teresita Schaffer, Former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for the Near East and South Asia, U.S. Department of State
  • Deborah Schneider, Staff Director, Nuclear Risk Reduction Center, U.S. Department of State
  • Manpreet Sethi, Senior Fellow, Centre for Air Power Studies
  • Sheel Kant Sharma, Former Indian Ambassador
  • Swaran Singh, Professor of Diplomacy and Disarmament, Jawaharlal Nehru University
  • Andrew Small, Senior Transatlantic Fellow, Asia Program, German Marshall Fund
  • David Smith, Former Attaché to Pakistan, U.S. Army
  • Rakesh Sood, Former Indian Ambassador
  • Leonard Spector, Executive Director, Washington Office, James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies
  • Yun Sun, Senior Associate, East Asia Program, Stimson Center
  • Mushahid Hussain Syed, Chairman, Committe on Defence, Pakistani Senate
  • Nina Tannenwald, Director, International Relations Program, Watson Institute, Brown University
  • Sadia Tasleem, Lecturer, Quaid-i-Azam University
  • Ashley Tellis, Former Senior Adviser to the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, U.S. Department of State
  • Cindy Vestergaard, Senior Associate, Nuclear Safeguards Program, Stimson Center
  • Marvin Weinbaum, Former Analyst for Pakistan and Afghanistan, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, U.S. Department of State
  • Amy Woolf, Specialist in Nuclear Weapons Policy, Foreign Afairs, Defense, and Trade Division, Congressional Research Service - *Representing Personal Views, Not Those of CRS
  • Diana Wueger, Faculty Associate for Research, Center on Contemporary Conflict, Naval Postgraduate School - *Representing Personal Views, Not Those of the U.S. Department of Defense
  • Moeed Yusuf, Associate Vice President, Asia Center, U.S. Institute of Peace

Rizwana Abbasi is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Strategic and Nuclear Studies at the National Defence University, Islamabad. She completed her Ph.D. at the University of Leicester, UK, and was a Post-Doctoral Research Fellow there. Formerly, she was a Research Fellow at the University of Leeds. She is a graduate of the Daniel K. Inouye Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (DKI APCSS), Hawaii. She has authored a book titled Pakistan and the New Nuclear Taboo: Regional Deterrence and the International Arms Control Regime (Oxford: Peter Lang, 2012).

James Acton is Co-Director of the Nuclear Policy Program and Senior Associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. A physicist by training, Acton specializes in deterrence, disarmament, nonproliferation, and nuclear energy. His current research focuses on the nuclear fuel cycle in Japan and hypersonic conventional weapons. Acton’s publications span the field of nuclear policy. He is the author of two Adelphi books, Deterrence During Disarmament: Deep Nuclear Reductions and International Security and Abolishing Nuclear Weapons (with George Perkovich). He wrote, with Mark Hibbs, “Why Fukushima Was Preventable,” a groundbreaking study into the accident’s root causes. His analysis on proliferation threats, including Iran and North Korea, has been widely disseminated by major journals, newspapers, and websites. Acton is a member of the Commission on Challenges to Deep Cuts and of the Nuclear Security Working Group. He is a former member of the International Panel on Fissile Materials and was Co-Chair of the Next Generation Working Group on U.S.-Russian arms control. He has provided evidence to the UN Secretary General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters and the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future. Acton has published in the New York Times, the International Herald Tribune, Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, Survival, and the Washington Quarterly. He has appeared on CNN’s State of the Union, NBC’s Nightly News, CBS Evening News, and PBS NewsHour.

Mansoor Ahmed is a Stanton Nuclear Security Junior Faculty Fellow at the International Security Program and Project on Managing the Atom at the Kennedy School’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University. An expert on Pakistan’s nuclear program, policy, and posture, he is currently researching the influence of bureaucratic politics and myth-making on nuclear decisionmaking in Pakistan. Prior to joining the Belfer Center, he served as a Lecturer in the Department of Defense and Strategic Studies at Quaid-i-Azam University (QAU), Islamabad, and was a Visiting Research Scholar at the Sandia National Laboratories. He holds a Ph.D. in International Relations from QAU.

Rabia Akhtar is Director, Centre for Security, Strategy, and Policy Research at the University of Lahore. She holds a Ph.D. in Security Studies from Kansas State University. Her research focused on U.S. nonproliferation policy towards Pakistan and foreign policy analysis of executive-legislative interactions in U.S. foreign policymaking and related issues in congressional oversight of U.S. foreign policy towards Pakistan from Ford to Clinton. She is a Fulbright Scholar (2010-2015). Her co-authored research monograph on “Nuclear Learning in South Asia” was published in January 2015 by the Regional Center of Strategic Studies (RCSS), Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Zamir Akram is the former Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Pakistan to the United Nations in Geneva. Akram joined the Foreign Service of Pakistan in 1978 and held assignments in Moscow, Geneva, New Delhi, and Washington. At the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Islamabad, he served as Section Officer for the Soviet Union, Director for Afghanistan, and Director General for South Asia. From 2002-2005, he served as Pakistan’s Ambassador to Nepal, and later as Additional Secretary for Disarmament and Arms Control and Additional Secretary for Foreign Affairs in the Prime Minister’s Office. Akram has written articles in the Express Tribune and the News International and is a contributor at the Tony Blair Faith Foundation. He was Dean and member of the extended faculty at the Geneva School of Diplomacy and International Relations and taught courses on diplomacy, contemporary international relations, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Akram holds a Master’s in International Relations from the London School of Economics and Political Science.

Linton Brooks is an independent consultant on national security issues, a Non-Resident Senior Advisor at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, a Distinguished Research Fellow at the National Defense University, a member of both the National Academy of Sciences Committee on International Security and Arms Control and the State Department International Security Advisory Board, and an advisor to six of the Department of Energy national laboratories. He served from July 2002 to January 2007 as Administrator of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration, where he was responsible for the U.S. nuclear weapons program and for the Department of Energy’s international nuclear nonproliferation programs. Ambassador Brooks has over five decades of experience in national security, much of it associated with nuclear weapons. His government service includes service as Deputy Administrator for Nuclear Nonproliferation at the National Nuclear Security Administration, Assistant Director of the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Chief U.S. Negotiator for the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, Director of Defense Programs and Arms Control on the National Security Council staff, and a series of Navy and Defense Department assignments as a 30-year career naval officer. Ambassador Brooks holds degrees in Physics from Duke University and in Government and Politics from the University of Maryland and is a Distinguished Graduate of the U.S. Naval War College.

Ahsan Butt is an Assistant Professor of Government and Politics in the Department of Public and International Affairs at George Mason University. He received a Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of Chicago in 2012 and a B.A. from Ohio Wesleyan University in 2006. Specializing in international relations, his research and teaching generally focus on ethnicity and nationalism, security, international relations theory, and South Asia. He has several research projects in progress, including a book project, based on his dissertation, which explains the variation in state violence against secessionists by pointing to the external security implications of secessionist movements.

Stephen Cohen is a Senior Fellow in The India Project, a part of the Foreign Policy Program at Brookings, following a career as a Professor of Political Science and History at the University of Illinois. In 2004, he was named by the World Affairs Councils of America as one of “America’s 500 Most Influential People” in foreign policy. Cohen is the author, co-author, or editor of over 14 books, mostly on South Asian security issues, including Shooting for a Century, The India-Pakistan Conundrum, and The Future of Pakistan. He has also written books on India, Pakistan, nuclear proliferation, disaster management, and the application of technology to the prevention or amelioration of terrorism. In early 2008, Cohen was a Visiting Professor at the Lee Kaun Yew School of Public Policy in Singapore, where he taught a course on the politics of manmade and natural disasters. He also taught in Japan at Keio University, and in India at Andhra University. He has consulted for numerous foundations and government agencies, and was a member of the Policy Planning Staff at the U.S. Department of State from 185 to 1987. He was a Visiting Scholar at the Ford Foundation in New Delhi from 1992 to 1993.

Raj Chengappa serves as the Group Editorial Director (Publishing) of the India Today Group. Previously, he served as the Editor-in-Chief of The Tribune Group of Newspapers. Chengappa is an award winning journalist of 40 years standing. Apart from editing publications, he has done over a hundred cover stories and exclusive reports for India Today on a range of subjects, including international affairs, defense, science, health, education, and environment. Chengappa is the author of the best-selling book on India’s nuclear program titled, Weapons of Peace: The Secret Story of India’s Quest to be a Nuclear Power. He won the Prem Bhatia award for Excellence in Reporting in 1998. He is also the winner of the Statesman Award for Rural Reporting in 1987. He was a Stimson Fellow on Security Issues in Washington, DC in 1995, a Nieman Fellow at Harvard University in 1990-91, and a Harry Britain Fellow partly at Oxford University in 1985.

Christopher Clary is an Assistant Professor at the Rockefeller College of Public Affairs & Policy at the University at Albany. He is also a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University. Clary received a B.A. in International Studies and History at Wichita State University, where he was awarded the William H. Swett prize for graduating senior with the highest GPA. Clary then received his Master’s in National Security Affairs at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, followed by a Ph.D. in Political Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He worked as a Research Associate at the Henry L. Stimson Center from 2001-2003 and the Naval Postgraduate School in the Department of National Security Affairs from 2003-2005. Clary served as Country Director for South Asian Affairs in the Office of the Secretary of Defense from 2006-2009, managing the U.S. defense relationships with India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives.

Clary has received an impressive number of fellowships, honors, and awards. He was a Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellow in India as well as an International Visiting Fellow at the Institute for Defense Studies and Analyses in New Delhi. In India, he focused on the Indian National Security establishment, analyzing the process of Indian decisionmaking and identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the national security system as a whole. Additionally, Clary was a Stanton Nuclear Security Predoctoral Fellow at the RAND Corporation from 2013-2014 and a Predoctoral Research Fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University from 2014-2015. His research interests include the causes and consequences of nuclear proliferation, U.S. defense policy, South Asian regional politics, and interstate rivalries.

Clary’s work has been published in journals including International Security, The American Interests, Survival, Disarmament Forum, and Disarmament Diplomacy. He has authored countless op-eds and contributed to various books including: Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East (Palgrave Macmillan, 2006); Strategic Asia 2013-2014: Asia in the Second Nuclear Age (The National Bureau of Asian Research, 2013); Asymmetric Warfare in South Asia: The Causes and Consequences of the Kargil Conflict (Cambridge University Press, 2009); Pakistan’s Enduring Challenges (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015); Deterrence Stability and Escalation Control in South Asia (Stimson Center, 2013), and many more.

Lisa Curtis focuses on U.S. national security interests and regional geopolitics as a Senior Research Fellow on South Asia in The Heritage Foundation’s Asian Studies Center. Her research centers on the United States-India strategic and defense partnership, United States counterterrorism policies in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and trends in Islamist extremism and religious freedom throughout the region. Lawmakers and journalists alike turn to Curtis for her clear-eyed research and perspective on U.S. interests in some of the most desperate, dangerous, and fast-developing parts of the world. She has testified before Congress on about 20 occasions regarding topics related to India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Islamist extremism, and America’s image abroad. Curtis has commented on developments in South Asia during appearances on major broadcast and cable networks, including CNN, Fox News Channel, MSNBC, CBS, PBS, and BBC. She also has been quoted or cited by dozens of news publications. Her commentary has appeared in: the Wall Street Journal; the Los Angeles TimesNewsweekU.S. News & World ReportForeign PolicyThe National InterestCNN.comFoxNews.com, and South Asian publications such as: the HinduMintExpress TribuneNewsFriday Times; and Outlook. Curtis regularly travels to the South Asia region to participate in conferences. She has contributed chapters to books and academic journals, including a chapter on India in Population Decline and the Remaking of Great Power Politics, edited by Susan Yoshihara and Douglas A. Sylva (Potomac Books, 2011) and an article on Pakistan’s foreign policy in Contemporary South Asia (June 2012). Before joining Heritage in August 2006, Curtis worked for the U.S. government on South Asian issues for 16 years. From 2003 to 2006, she was a member of the Professional Staff of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, where she oversaw the South Asia portfolio for the chairman at the time, Sen. Richard Lugar (R-IN). From 2001 to 2003, Curtis was the White House-appointed Senior Adviser to the Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian Affairs, where she helped develop policy to manage Indo-Pakistani tensions. Before that, she worked as an Analyst for the Central Intelligence Agency and, in the mid-1990s, served as a diplomat in the U.S. embassies in Pakistan and India. A native of Fort Wayne, Indiana, Curtis received a Bachelor’s degree in Economics from Indiana University. She currently resides in Herndon, Virginia with her husband and two children.

Toby Dalton is Co-Director of the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. An expert on nonproliferation and nuclear energy, his research focuses on cooperative nuclear security initiatives and the management of nuclear challenges in South Asia and East Asia. Dalton is author of “Beyond Incrementalism: Rethinking Approaches to CBMs and Stability in South Asia” (Stimson Center, 2013); co-author with Jaclyn Tandler of the Carnegie paper “Understanding the Arms ‘Race’ in South Asia;” and co-author with Mark Hibbs and George Perkovich of the Carnegie Policy Outlook “A Criteria-Based Approach to Nuclear Cooperation with Pakistan.” From 2002 to 2010, Dalton served in a variety of high-level positions at the U.S. Department of Energy, including Acting Director for the Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security and Senior Policy Adviser to the Office of Nonproliferation and International Security on issues relating to International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards, the nonproliferation regime, and a range of countries, such as Pakistan, India, China, North Korea, and Israel. He also established and led the department’s office at the U.S. embassy in Pakistan, managing critical bilateral and multilateral nonproliferation issues and overseeing the implementation of U.S. nonproliferation and counterproliferation initiatives. Dalton previously served as Professional Staff Member to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, a Luce Scholar at the Institute for Far Eastern Studies in Seoul, a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Asian Research, and a Project Associate for the Carnegie Nuclear Policy Program. He has authored numerous op-eds and journal articles and contributed to the books Understanding New Political Realities in Seoul: Working toward a Common Approach to Strengthen U.S.-Korea Relations and The Future of U.S.-Korea-Japan Relations: Balancing Values and Interests.

Robert Einhorn is a Senior Fellow in the Arms Control and Non-Proliferation Initiative and the Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence, both housed within the Foreign Policy program at the Brookings Institution. Einhorn focuses on arms control (U.S.-Russia and multilateral), nonproliferation and regional security issues (including Iran, the greater Middle East, South Asia, and Northeast Asia), and U.S. nuclear weapons policies and programs. Before joining Brookings in May 2013, Einhorn served as the U.S. Department of State Special Advisor for Nonproliferation and Arms Control, a position created by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in 2009. In that capacity, he played a leading role in the formulation and execution of U.S. policy toward Iran’s nuclear program, both with respect to sanctions and negotiations between Iran and the P5+1 countries. He also helped shape the Obama administration’s overall approach to nonproliferation; supported nonproliferation goals through diplomatic contacts with China, Russia, and key non-aligned countries; and addressed nuclear security and strategic stability challenges in South Asia. He played a key role in the development of the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review and served as U.S. delegation head in negotiations with South Korea on a successor civil nuclear agreement. Between 2001 and 2009, Einhorn was a Senior Advisor at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), where he directed the Proliferation Prevention Program. Prior to joining CSIS, he was Assistant Secretary of State for Nonproliferation from 1999 to 2001, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs from 1992 to 1999, and a member of the State Department Policy Planning Staff from 1986 to 1992. Between 1972 and 1986, he held various positions at the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), including as ACDA’s representative to the strategic arms reduction talks with the Soviet Union. In 1984, he was an International Affairs Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations. Einhorn has written extensively in the area of arms control and nonproliferation. He authored Negotiating from Strength: Leverage in U.S.-Soviet Arms Control Negotiations, co-edited Protecting against the Spread of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons: An Action Agenda for the Global Partnership, and The Nuclear Tipping Point: Why States Reconsider their Nuclear Choices, and published numerous articles in such journals as Survival, The National Interest, Foreign Policy, Arms Control Today, The Washington Quarterly, The Nonproliferation Review, and Yaderny Kontrol. Einhorn holds a Bachelor’s in Government from Cornell University and a Master’s in Public Affairs and International Relations from the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University.

Thomas Fingar is a Shorenstein Distinguished Fellow in the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University. He was the inaugural Oksenberg-Rohlen Distinguished Fellow in 2010-2015 and the Payne Distinguished Lecturer at Stanford during January-December 2009. From May 2005 through December 2008, he served as the first Deputy Director of National Intelligence for Analysis and, concurrently, as Chairman of the National Intelligence Council. Fingar served previously as Assistant Secretary of the State Department’s Bureau of Intelligence and Research (2004-2005), Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary (2001-2003), Deputy Assistant Secretary for Analysis (1994-2000), Director of the Office of Analysis for East Asia and the Pacific (1989-1994), and Chief of the China Division (1986-1989). Between 1975 and 1986 he held a number of positions at Stanford University, including Senior Research Associate in the Center for International Security and Arms Control. Fingar is a graduate of Cornell University (A.B. in Government and History, 1968), and Stanford University (M.A., 1969 and Ph.D., 1977 both in Political Science). His most recent books are Reducing Uncertainty: Intelligence Analysis and National Security (Stanford University Press, 2011) and The New Great Game: China and South and Central Asia in the Era of Reform, editor (Stanford University Press, 2016).

Mark Fitzpatrick is the Executive Director of IISS-Americas, a role he assumed in December 2015 after ten years heading the IISS Non-Proliferation and Nuclear Policy Programme. Mark Fitzpatrick’s research focus is on preventing nuclear dangers through non-proliferation, nuclear security, and arms control. He is the author of Asia’s Latent Nuclear Powers: Japan, South Korea and Taiwan (IISS Adelphi book 455, 2016), Overcoming Pakistan’s Nuclear Dangers (IISS Adelphi book 443, 2014) and The Iranian Nuclear Crisis: Avoiding Worst-Case Outcomes (IISS Adelphi Paper 398, 2008). He was the editor of the IISS Strategic Dossiers on North Korean Security Challenges (2011), Iran’s Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Capabilities (2011), Iran’s Ballistic Missile Capabilities (2010), Preventing Nuclear Dangers in Southeast Asia and Australasia, (2009), Nuclear Programmes in the Middle East: In the Shadow of Iran (2008), and Nuclear Black Markets: Pakistan, A.Q. Khan and the Rises of Proliferation networks (2007). He has lectured throughout Europe, North America, and Asia and is a frequent commentator on proliferation and disarmament on BBC, NPR, and other news outlets.

Fitzpatrick came to IISS in 2005 after a distinguished 26-year career in the U.S. Department of State, where for the previous ten years he focused on nonproliferation issues. In his last posting, he served as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Non-Proliferation (acting), responsible for policies to address the proliferation problems posed by Iran, North Korea, Libya, Iraq, South Asia, and other regions of concern. Among his duties, he also oversaw implementation of the Proliferation Security Initiative, advanced conventional arms and technology controls, proliferation sanctions, and export control cooperation programmes.

Fitzpatrick had previously served for four years at the U.S. Mission to International Organizations in Vienna, including as Charge d’Affairs and as Counselor for Nuclear Policy, in charge of liaison with the International Atomic Energy Agency. In previous State Department postings, he headed the South Asia Regional Affairs Office, responsible for nonproliferation and security policies regarding India and Pakistan; served as Special Assistant to Deputy Secretary Strobe Talbott; headed the Political-Military Branch of the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo; served as North Korea Desk Officer; and held postings in South Korea and New Zealand.

Fitzpatrick received a Master’s in Public Policy from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, and joined officers of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces in a one-year post-graduate study program at the Japanese National Institute of Defense, where his dissertation on Korean unification was published in journals in Japan and South Korea.

Francis Gavin is the first Frank Stanton Chair in Nuclear Security Policy Studies and Professor of Political Science at MIT. Before joining MIT, Gavin was the Tom Slick Professor of International Affairs and the Director of the Robert S. Strauss Center for International Security and Law at the University of Texas. From 2005 until 2010, he directed the American Assembly’s multiyear, national initiative, The Next Generation Project: U.S. Global Policy and the Future of International Institutions. He is the author of Gold, Dollars, and Power: The Politics of International Monetary Relations, 1958-1971 (University of North Carolina Press, 2004) and Nuclear Statecraft: History and Strategy in America’s Atomic Age (Cornell University Press, 2012).

Gavin received a Ph.D. and M.A. in Diplomatic History from the University of Pennsylvania, a Master of Studies in Modern European History from Oxford University, and a B.A. in Political Science from the University of Chicago. He has been a National Security Fellow at Harvard’s Olin Institute for Strategic Studies, an International Security Fellow at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government, a Research Fellow at the Miller Center for Public Affairs at the University of Virginia, a Smith Richardson Junior Faculty Fellow in International Security and Foreign Policy, a Donald D. Harrington Distinguished Faculty Fellow at the University of Texas, a Senior Research Fellow at the Nobel Institute, and an Aspen Ideas Festival Scholar. Gavin is an Associate of the Managing the Atom Program at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University, Senior Fellow of the Clements Program in History, Strategy, and Statecraft, a Distinguished Scholar at the Robert S. Strauss Center, an Adjunct Senior Research Fellow at the Center for a New American Security in Washington, DC, a Senior Advisor to the Nuclear Proliferation International History Project at the Woodrow Wilson Center, and a life-member of the Council on Foreign Relations.

Jack Gill is an Associate Professor on the faculty of the Near East – South Asia Center. A former U.S. Army South Asia Foreign Area Officer, he retired as a colonel in 2005 after more than 27 years of service. Prior to joining the NESA Center, he worked on South Asia issues in the Pentagon from 1998-2001, including the 1999 Kargil crisis. During his time at the NESA Center, he has also served as Special Assistant for India/Pakistan to the Plans and Policy Director of the U.S. Joint Staff and as Military Advisor to Ambassador James Dobbins, the United States envoy to the Afghan opposition forces (2001-02). From August 2003 to January 2004, he served in Islamabad as the liaison officer to the Pakistan Army for the United States forces in Afghanistan, including participation in Tripartite Commission meetings and other trilateral discussions. He has been following South Asia issues from the intelligence and policy perspectives since the mid-1980’s in positions with the U.S. Joint Staff, the U.S. Pacific Command staff, and the Defense Intelligence Agency. His publications on South Asia include an Atlas of the 1971 India-Pakistan War, chapters in Strategic Asia (2003 and 2005), and chapters on U.S.-India military relations (2006) and India-Pakistan behavior during the “Brass Tacks” crisis (2008). Prof. Gill is currently working on chapters addressing Indian counterinsurgency experiences in Sri Lanka (“IPKF”) and military operations during the 1999 Kargil conflict. He is also an internationally recognized military historian and has authored several books and numerous papers on the Napoleonic era.

Charles Glaser is Professor of Political Science and International Affairs and Director of the Elliott School's Institute for Security and Conflict Studies. His research focuses on international relations theory and international security policy.

Glaser's book, Rational Theory of International Politics was published by Princeton University Press in 2010. His research on international relations theory has focused on the security dilemma, defensive realism, the offense-defense balance, and arms races, including most recently "When Are Arms Races Dangerous?" in International Security in 2004. His recent publications on U.S. nuclear weapons policy include "Counterforce Revisited" (with Steve Fetter) in International Security in 2005 and "National Missile Defense and the Future of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy" (with Fetter) in International Security in 2001. Glaser's work on American Cold War nuclear weapons policy culminated in his book, Analyzing Strategic Nuclear Policy (Princeton University Press, 1990).

Glaser holds a Ph.D. from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. He received a B.S. in Physics from MIT, and an M.A. in Physics and an M.P.P. from Harvard. Before joining the George Washington University, Glaser was the Emmett Dedmon Professor of Public Policy and Deputy Dean at the Harris School of Public Policy at the University of Chicago. He has also taught political science at the University of Michigan, was a Visiting Fellow at the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford, served on the Joint Staff in the Pentagon, was a Peace Fellow at the United States Institute of Peace, and was a Research Associate at the Center of International Studies at MIT.

Anish Goel is a Senior Fellow in the International Security Program of New America. He joined the U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services in 2015, where he currently serves as a Professional Staff Member. In this role, his responsibilities include defense science and technology issues, including research and development, as well as Pentagon policy and strategy in South Asia. Anish joined the Senate after three years with the Boeing Company, where he led geopolitical and aviation policy analysis for the commercial airplanes division.

Prior to Boeing, Anish served for over nine years in the U.S. federal government working primarily on South Asia foreign policy. Most recently, he served from 2008 to 2011 in the White House’s National Security Council as Director and then Senior Director for South Asia, a position that made him the senior-most advisor on South Asia to the President of the United States. In that role, Anish led preparations for President Obama’s four-day visit to India in November 2010, a visit that was widely recognized as the most successful presidential visit to India in U.S. history. He provided direct non-partisan guidance and advice to both Presidents Bush and Obama and drove efforts to develop and implement White House policy. In his role, he also led negotiations with foreign governments on presidential agreements.

Prior to joining the White House, Anish served in the U.S. Department of State as the chief science and technology officer for South Asia. In his role, Anish led departmental efforts on the United States-India civil nuclear cooperation initiative, which involved negotiating agreements with 45 foreign governments and securing Congressional approval. During his time there, Anish also provided strategic guidance to Secretaries of State Powell and Rice, as well as other senior officials.

Anish earned his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and a B.S.E. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Michigan. He currently resides in Washington, DC, where he relishes his ten-minute biking commute to work.

Devin Hagerty is a Professor of Political Science and Founding Director of the Global Studies Program at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). He is an internationally recognized scholar of South Asian international relations. Hagerty came to UMBC from the University of Sydney in 2001. Since then he has published two books, five articles, and 13 book chapters. He founded the journal Asian Security in 2003 and has served as its Managing Editor or Co-Editor ever since. He teaches courses in international relations and has won the Political Science Teacher of the Year award three times. He also has served as Chair of the Political Science Department.

Syed Azmat Hassan is an Adjunct Professor at the School of Diplomacy and International Relations at Seton Hall University and a former Pakistani Ambassador. Hassan served as Pakistan’s Ambassador to Malaysia, Syria (with responsibility for Lebanon), and Morocco. He was also Additional Secretary for Foreign Affairs and Defence, head of the Middle East Desk, and Director General of the Afghanistan Division at the Foreign Ministry in Pakistan. From 1979-1980, Hassan served as the Deputy Permanent Representative of Pakistan to the United Nations in New York.

In addition to many years in the diplomatic service, Hassan has worked as a professor at Columbia University, Rutgers University, Caldwell College, and the Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS) in Lahore. He received an M.A. in Economics from Cambridge University and a M.Sc. in Strategic Studies from Quaid-e-Azam University in Islamabad. Hassan’s work has been published in the Star Ledger (New Jersey), Daily Record (New Jersey), World Focus, and Huffington Post, where he also works as a blogger. In 2009, he wrote a monograph about the Sri Lankan Tamil Tigers for the EastWest Institute.

Siegfried Hecker is a Senior Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies and a Research Professor of Management Science and Engineering at the Stanford Center for International Security and Cooperation. Hecker was the fifth Director of Los Alamos National Laboratory, where he led the Materials Science and Technology Division and Center for Materials Science and later worked as a Senior Fellow. From 2007-2012, he served as Co-Director of the Stanford CISAC.

Hecker is an expert in plutonium science, nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship, cooperative threat reduction, and safe and secure expansion of nuclear energy. He has worked closely with Russian nuclear laboratories to ensure the security of the ex-Soviet fissile material stockpile, and currently he is working on a book about Russian-U.S. laboratory-to-laboratory cooperation since 1992. At CISAC, Hecker also focuses on reducing the risks of nuclear terrorism, specifically with regard to India, North Korea, Pakistan, and Iran. He received his B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. in Metallurgy at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, where he was awarded the Alumni Association Gold Medal and the Undergraduate Distinguished Alumni Award.

Hecker has received numerous awards over the years, including: the Presidential Enrico Fermi Award; the American Physical Society’s Leo Szilard Prize; the American Nuclear Society’s Seaborg Medal; the Department of Energy’s E.O. Lawrence Award; and the Los Alamos National Laboratory Medal. His distinctions include: Member of the National Academy of Engineering; Foreign Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Fellow of the TMS (Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials Society); and Fellow of the American Society for Metals; the American Physical Society; and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Hecker authored Doomed to Cooperate: How American and Russian Scientists Joined Forces to Avert Some of the Greatest Post-Cold War Nuclear Dangers (Bathtub Row Press, 2016) and co-authored “Nuclear Non-proliferation,” a chapter in the textbook Fundamentals of Materials for Energy and Environmental Sustainability (Cambridge University Press, 2011). His work has been published in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, Physics Today, Physics & Society, American Physical Society, Arms Control Today, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, and many more.

Pervez Hoodbhoy taught for 40 years at Quaid-e-Azam University in Islamabad and now, after retirement, is Distinguished Professor of Physics and Mathematics at Forman Christian College, Lahore. He graduated from MIT was undergraduate degrees in Electrical Engineering and Mathematics, and a Ph.D. degree in Nuclear Physics. In 1968 he won the Baker Award for Electronics, and in 1984 the Abdus Salam Prize for Mathematics. He was a Visiting Professor at MIT, Carnegie Mellon University, and the University of Maryland. In 2003 he was awarded UNESCO’s Kalinga Prize for the popularization of science. Hoodbhoy is a sponsor of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, and a member of the Permanent Monitoring Panel on Terrorism of the World Federation of Scientists. In 2010 he received the Joseph A. Burton Award from the American Physical Society and the Jean Meyer Award from Tufts University. In 2011, he was included in the list of 100 most influential global tinkers by Foreign Policy magazine. In 2013, he was made a member of the UN Secretary General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament.

Touqir Hussain is a Senior Pakistan Visiting Fellow and Lecturer at SAIS Johns Hopkins University and Adjunct Professor at Georgetown University and the Syracuse University (Washington, DC campus). Earlier, he also taught at the University of Virginia. He was a Senior Fellow at the U.S. Institute of Peace from 2004 to 2005 and a Research Fellow with the Center for the Study of Globalization at the George Washington University from 2006 to 2010. Mr. Hussain is a former senior diplomat from Pakistan. He held senior positions in the Pakistani Foreign Office and served as Ambassador to Brazil (1990-1993), Spain (1993-1995), and Japan (1998-2003). He was also Diplomatic Adviser to the Prime Minister from 1996-1998. Ambassador Hussain specializes in South Asian security issues. He has been guest speaker and panelist at several American academic institutions and think tanks. He has also appeared on the PBS NewsHour, Al Jazeera, and Voice of America, and was invited to speak on NPR’s Diane Rhem and Kojo Namdi shows. Ambassador Hussain has written regularly for American and Pakistani newspapers on democracy, South Asian security issues, the Kashmir dispute, U.S.- Pakistan relations, political Islam, and U.S. relations with the Islamic world.

Zahid Imroz previously served as a Visiting Research Fellow at the Space Policy Institute, Elliot School of International Affairs, George Washington University, where he researched the “strategic implications of the Indian space program for South Asia.” Part of his work also focuses on U.S.-Iran relations and nuclear standoff. He received an M.Sc. in 2009 and M.Phil. in 2011 in Physics from Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. He later served as an Adjunct Faculty Member at International Islamic University, Islamabad, teaching courses in Physics. He has been working on global peace and security issues since 2007. He has presented his work at Union of Concerned Scientists summer symposia and other international conferences. He is also a poet and published two collections of his poetry. His first book was awarded with National Youth Award in 2009.

Abhijit Iyer-Mitra is a Senior Fellow at the Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies. After receiving his B.Com. from the University of Madras, he pursued a career in the corporate world before turning to academia. He served as Research Assistant on several projects all under the aegis of the Centre for Muslim Minorities & Islam Policy Studies at Monash (2007-2010). He previously was a Programme Coordinator at the Observer Research Foundation, New Delhi, and a Visiting Research Scholar at Sandia National Laboratories. His primary research is on limited wars and nuclear thresholds, but his interests include: military transformation; defense planning; procurement and offsets; infrastructure; governance; and historical patterns of conflict 5 in democracies. He holds a Master’s Degree in International Relations from the School of Political & Social Inquiry at Monash University, and is currently pursuing his Ph.D.

Neil Joeck is a Research Scholar at the Institute of International Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. Before joining the Institute, he spent 25 years working for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), where he served as National Intelligence Officer for South Asia in the Office of the Director for National Intelligence, Director for Counter-proliferation Strategy at the National Security Council, and a member of the Policy Planning Staff at the State Department. He retired from LLNL in 2013 as a Distinguished Member of the Technical Staff.

Joeck received a B.A. in Politics with Honors from the University of California in Santa Cruz, an M.A. with Distinction from the Paterson School of International Affairs at Carleton University in Canada, and an M.A. and a Ph.D. in Political Science from UCLA. He then taught courses at the Chinese Academy of Social Science, UCLA, and the University of California in Berkeley. In addition to his work at LLNL, Joeck spent a year working as a Research Fellow at the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London. He also served as a consultant to the Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, and in 2000, he worked for the RAND Corporation under contract with the Department of Defense Office of Net Assessments.

Manoj Joshi is a Distinguished Fellow at the Observer Research Foundation. He has been a journalist specializing on national and international politics and is a commentator and columnist on these issues. As a reporter, he has written extensively on issues relating to Siachen, Pakistan, China, Sri Lanka, and terrorism in Kashmir and Punjab. He was most recently a member of the Task Force on National Security chaired by Mr. Naresh Chandra to propose reforms in the security apparatus of the country. He has been: the Political Editor of the Times of India; Editor (Views) of the Hindustan Times; Defence Editor of India Today; National Affairs Editor of Mail Today; the Washington Correspondent of the Financial Express; and a Special Correspondent of The Hindu in his three decade long career as a journalist. Before that he was an Academic Fellow of the American Studies Research Centre, Hyderabad. He has been a member of the National Security Council’s Advisory Board and is the author of two books on the Kashmir issue and several papers in professional journals. He is a graduate from St Stephen’s College, Delhi University and earned a Ph.D. from the School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. He has been a Visiting Professor at the SIS, JNU, as well as a Visiting Fellow at the Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Australian National University.

Sharad Joshi is an Assistant Professor of Nonproliferation and Terrorism Studies at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies (MIIS) at Monterey. He is also an Associate Fellow in the International Security program at Chatham House in London. Joshi has been at MIIS since September 2006, when he joined as a Post-Doctoral Fellow at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. He then worked as a Research Associate at the Center for Nonproliferation Studies and the Monterey Terrorism Research and Education Program. Before joining the Institute, Joshi was a Visiting Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analysis in New Delhi, an Adjunct Instructor at Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, and a journalist for India Abroad newspaper.

Joshi received a B.A. in Economics with honors from the University of Rajasthan in Jaipur, an M.A. in Politics from the School of International Studies as Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, and a Ph.D. from the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs at the University of Pittsburgh. His research interests include terrorism and nonproliferation issues in South Asia and he has written issue briefs for Nuclear Threat Initiative and pieces for Chatham House and Foreign Policy in Focus. Joshi also co-authored a chapter in The Future of Counterinsurgency (ABC-CLIO, 2015) (edited by Lawrence Cline and Paul Shemella) titled “The Transnational Security Threat from D-Company.”

S. Paul Kapur is a Professor in the Department of National Security Affairs at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School. Kapur received his B.A. from Amherst College and a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago, specializing in nuclear proliferation, South Asian politics and security, and Indian Ocean regional security. He is currently an affiliate at the Stanford University Center for International Security and Cooperation, where he previously worked as a Visiting Professor. Kapur was a faculty member at both the U.S. Naval War College and Claremont McKenna College. He is currently a Visiting Fellow at the Observer Research Foundation in New Delhi, and occasionally acts as a consultant for the U.S. Departments of State and Defense in addition to various other private entities.

Kapur has been published in a number of prestigious international affairs journals, including International Security, Security Studies, Asian Survey, and the Washington Quarterly. He is the author of Dangerous Deterrent: Nuclear Weapons Proliferation and Conflict in South Asia (Stanford University Press, 2007) and a co-author of India, Pakistan, and the Bomb: Debating Nuclear Stability in South Asia (Columbia University Press, 2010).

Reshmi Kazi is an Associate Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses in New Delhi. She specializes in India’s nuclear weapons program, nuclear nonproliferation and disarmament, nuclear security, and nuclear, chemical, and biological terrorism. Kazi received a Doctorate in Disarmament Studies at Jawaharlal Nehru University, after which she worked as a Research Fellow at the Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies. She served as a Visiting Fellow in the Stimson Center’s South Asia program in 2016. Kazi has been published in Defense and Diplomacy, Strategic Analysis, Asian Strategic Review 2015 and 2016, Indian Foreign Affairs, E-International Relations, and the Huffington Post. Additionally, she published a piece in the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses monograph series titled Nuclear Terrorism: The New Terror of the 21st Century (2013).

Feroz Khan is a Lecturer in the Department of National Security Affairs at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. He is a former Director of Arms Control and Disarmament Affairs in the Strategic Plans Division (SPD), Joint Services Headquarters, in Pakistan. Khan had been a key contributor in formulating Pakistan’s security policies on nuclear and conventional arms control and strategic stability in South Asia and represented Pakistan in several multilateral and bilateral arms control negotiations. He has served on numerous assignments in the United States, Europe, and Asia. He has widely participated in international and national conferences on: strategic issues; international security; terrorism; nuclear arms control; and nonproliferation issues. He is the author of Eating Grass: The Making of the Pakistani Bomb (Stanford University Press, 2012). Khan holds an M.A. in International Relations from the School of Advance International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University.

Riaz Khan spent nearly 40 years in Pakistan’s Foreign Service, holding various assignments at Pakistani missions around the world. His diplomatic career began with a posting to Beijing in 1970. Following his time in China, Khan managed Chinese affairs in Pakistan’s Foreign Office before a seven-year assignment to Pakistan’s Mission to the United Nations in New York from 1979 to 1986.

Khan returned to Pakistan as Director General of Afghanistan and Soviet Affairs at the Foreign Office, during which time he took a sabbatical to serve as a Diplomat-in-Residence at Georgetown University’s Institute for the Study of Diplomacy. He served as Pakistan’s first Ambassador to Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan (1992-1995), Ambassador to Belgium, Luxembourg, and the European Union (1995-1998), Additional Secretary in charge of international organizations and arms control issues for Pakistan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1998-2002), and concurrently as Spokesman of the Foreign Office (2000-2001).

Khan’s last field assignment was as Ambassador of Pakistan to China from 2002 to 2005. He returned to Islamabad in early 2005 to serve as Pakistan’s Foreign Secretary, a post he held until 2008. As Foreign Secretary, he served as head of the Pakistani delegation to the Pakistan-India Composite Dialogue and the Pakistan-U.S. Strategic Dialogue. He also led Pakistan’s delegation to the United Nations General Assembly in 2007. After his retirement from the Foreign Service, he spent a year as a scholar at the Woodrow Wilson Center in Washington, DC. He also served as Pakistan’s envoy for “back channel” diplomacy with India from 2009 to 2012.

Khan is the author of Untying the Afghan Knot: Negotiating Soviet Withdrawal (Duke University Press, 1991) and Afghanistan and Pakistan: Conflict, Extremism and Resistance to Modernity (Woodrow Wilson Center, Johns Hopkins University Press, Oxford University Press, 2011).

Prior to joining Pakistan’s Foreign Service in 1969, Khan taught quantum physics from 1965 to 1969 as Assistant Professor in the Mathematics Department at Punjab University, Lahore. He holds a Master’s degree in Mathematics and a B.A. (honors) from the same university.

Michael Krepon is the Co-Founder of the Stimson Center. He worked previously at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency within the U.S. State Department, and on Capitol Hill. He is the author or editor of 20 books, including: Better Safe than Sorry: The Ironies of Living with the Bomb (Stanford Security Studies, 2009); Nuclear Risk Reduction in South Asia (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004); Escalation Control and the Nuclear Option in South Asia (Henry L. Stimson Center, 2004); Cooperative Threat Reduction, Missile Defense, and the Nuclear Future (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003); Global Confidence Building: New Tools for Troubled Regions (St. Martin’s Press, 1999); Crisis Prevention, Confidence Building, and Reconciliation in South Asia (St. Martin’s Press, 1995); and Rummaging in Shoeboxes for Stories about the Bomb, the Nuclear Age and Arms Control (two collections of blog posts from Arms Control Wonk).

Walter Ladwig is an Assistant Professor of International Relations at King’s College in London. He is currently a Visiting Fellow in South Asian Security at the Royal United Services Institution and a Research Associate at the University of Oxford’s Center for International Studies. He previously worked as an Assistant Professor of International Relations at the University of Oxford, a contributor to Oxford Analytica, an Adjunct Scholar at the RAND Corporation in Washington, DC, an Acting Political-Military Officer at the U.S. Embassy in London, and USPACOM Coordinator for the Counterterrorism Fellowship Program at the Department of Defense. Throughout his career, Ladwig has earned numerous awards, grants, and fellowships. In 2015, he was awarded the King’s College Undergraduate Research Fellowship. He held a Predoctoral Fellowship from the Miller Center for Public Affairs at the University of Virginia and a World Politics and Statecraft Fellowship from the Smith-Richardson Foundation. Ladwig was awarded an overseas travel grant from the International Studies Association in both 2011 and 2012 as well as a highly competitive three-month grant as a Summer Research Associate at the RAND Corporation in 2009.

Ladwig’s research specialties include military strategy, counterinsurgency, U.S. foreign policy and defense politics, and the political and military implications of India’s rise as a great power. Currently, he is working on two research projects: one regarding intra-state conflict, and another examining security issues in South Asia. Ladwig’s work has been published in a number of journals, including the Journal of Strategic Studies, Asian Security, Asian Survey, International Security, World Politics Review, Small Wars & Insurgencies, Comparative Strategy, Harvard Asia Quarterly, and Strategic Analysis. With regard to Indian foreign and security policy, Ladwig’s publications include – but are not limited to – “Indian Military Modernization and Conventional Deterrence in South Asia” in the Journal of Strategic Studies and “A Cold Start for Hot Wars? The Indian Army’s New Limited War Doctrine” in International Security. Ladwig is a contributor to books including: The Rise of the Indian Navy: Internal Vulnerabilities, External Challenges (Routledge, 2016); A Handbook of India’s International Relations (Routledge, 2015); Policing Insurgencies: Cops as Counterinsurgents (Oxford University Press, 2014); India and Counterinsurgency: Lessons Learned (Routledge, 2009), and many other notable works. He has appeared on BBC, Reuters, the Associated Press, the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, the San Diego Union-Tribune, the Baltimore Sun, the Indian Express, and the Japan Times.

Sameer Lalwani is a Senior Associate and Deputy Director for the Stimson Center’s South Asia Program. From 2014-15, Lalwani was a Stanton Nuclear Security Postdoctoral Fellow at the RAND Corporation. He completed his Ph.D. in Political Science at MIT and remains a Research Affiliate at MIT’s Center for International Studies. His research interests include grand strategy, counterinsurgency, civil-military relations, ethnic conflict, nuclear security, and the national security politics of South Asia and the Middle East. Sameer has conducted field research in Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, and the British archives. His work has been published through RAND, Oxford University Press, the Journal of Strategic Studies, Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, the National Interest, CTC Sentinel, the Los Angeles Times, the New York Times, and a number of other outlets. Previously he was a fellow at George Washington University’s Institute for Security and Conflict Studies, a member of the CNAS Next Gen National Security Leaders Program, a participant in the CSIS Nuclear Scholars Initiative, and a policy analyst with the New America Foundation. He holds B.A. in Political Science from University of California, Berkeley.

Jeffrey Lewis is an Adjunct Professor and Director of East Asia Nonproliferation Program at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS). Before coming to CNS, he was the Director of the Nuclear Strategy and Nonproliferation Initiative at the New America Foundation. Prior to that, Lewis was Executive Director of the Managing the Atom Project at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Executive Director of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs, a Visiting Fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies and a desk officer in the Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Policy. He is also a Research Scholar at the Center for International and Security Studies at the University of Maryland's School of Public Policy (CISSM). His expertise is in nuclear nonproliferation, international security, disarmament, arms control. Lewis received his Ph.D. in Policy Studies (International Security and Economic Policy) from the University of Maryland and his B.A. in Philosophy and Political Science from Augustana College in Rock Island, Ill.

Thomas F. Lynch III is a Distinguished Research Fellow for South Asia and the Near East in the Center for Strategic Research (CSR) at the Institute of National Strategic Studies (INSS) at the National Defense University (NDU) in Washington, DC. He researches, writes, lectures, and organizes workshops and conferences for U.S. Department of Defense customers on the topics of Pakistan, Afghanistan, India & the Subcontinent, the Gulf Arab States, and the past & future trajectory of radical Islam. Lynch joined NDU in July 2010 after a 28-year career in the active duty U.S. Army, serving in a variety of command and staff positions as an armor/cavalry officer and as a senior level politico-military analyst. He was a Special Assistant to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff & Deputy Director of the Chairman’s Advisory & Initiatives Group; Commander of the U.S. Army War Theater Support Group in Doha, Qatar; Director of the Advisory Group for the Commander, U.S. Central Command (USCENTCOM); and Military Special Assistant to the U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan. He spent 42 of 44 months from 2004-07 on assignment in the Middle East and South Asia supporting Operations Enduring & Iraqi Freedom.

Lynch is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) and an Adjunct Professor in the Security Studies Program in the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. He is a member of the International Institute for Strategic Studies, the International Studies Association, and the Arms Control Association. A former CFR-International Affairs Fellow, Lynch also has been a Fellow at the Brookings Institution, the Atlantic Council of the United States and the Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars.  Lynch holds a B.S. from the United States Military Academy; and a Master’s in Public Administration (MPA) along with a M.A., and Ph.D. in International Relations from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public & International Affairs at Princeton University.

Julia Macdonald is a Post-Doctoral Fellow at the University of Pennsylvania’s Perry World House and an Assistant Professor at the University of Denver’s Korbel School of International Studies (on leave 2016-17), where her research focuses on state threat assessments, use of force decisions, and U.S. military strategy and effectiveness. Her recent work has appeared in the Journal of Conflict Resolution, Journal of Strategic Studies, Foreign Policy Analysis, Armed Forces and Society, and in various policy outlets. Previously, Macdonald was a Pre-Doctoral Fellow at Harvard’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs and a Stanton Nuclear Security Fellow in the Security Studies Program at MIT. She has also worked for the RAND Corporation in Washington DC and the New Zealand Ministry of Defense. Macdonald holds a Ph.D. in Political Science from the George Washington University, an M.A. (Hons) in International Relations from the University of Chicago, and a B.A. (Hons) from the University of Canterbury, New Zealand.

Salma Malik is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Defence and Strategic Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University (QAU), Islamabad. She specializes in the areas of war, arms control and disarmament, military sociology, and South Asian affairs. Her research areas include: conflict management and transformation; human security; confidence-building measures; and micro-disarmament.

Daniel Markey is Senior Research Professor at Johns Hopkins University’s School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS). He is also the Academic Director for the SAIS Global Policy Program and an adjunct senior fellow for India, Pakistan, and South Asia at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). From 2007-2015, Daniel Markey was Senior Fellow for India, Pakistan, and South Asia at CFR. While there, he wrote a book on the future of the U.S.-Pakistan relationship, No Exit from Pakistan: America’s Tortured Relationship with Islamabad (Cambridge University Press, 2013). From 2003 to 2007, Markey held the South Asia portfolio on the Secretary’s Policy Planning Staff at the U.S. Department of State. Prior to government service, he taught in the Department of Politics at Princeton University, where he served as Executive Director of Princeton’s Research Program in International Security. Earlier, he was a Postdoctoral Fellow at Harvard’s Olin Institute for Strategic Studies. Markey is the author of numerous reports, articles, book chapters, and opinion pieces. He has written two CFR Special Reports: Reorienting U.S. Pakistan Strategy (2014) and Securing Pakistan’s Tribal Belt (2008). In 2010, he served as Project Director of the CFR-sponsored Independent Task Force on U.S. Strategy in Pakistan and Afghanistan. His commentary has been featured widely in U.S. and international media. Markey earned a Bachelor’s degree in International Studies from Johns Hopkins University and a Ph.D. in Politics from Princeton University.

Zia Mian is a Physicist and Co-Director, with Alexander Glaser, of the Program on Science and Global Security. Zia has been with the Program on Science and Global Security since 1997. His research and teaching focuses on nuclear weapons and nuclear energy policy, especially in Pakistan and India, and he directs the Program’s Project on Peace and Security in South Asia. He has a Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. His most recent book is Unmaking the Bomb: A Fissile Material Approach to Nuclear Disarmament and Nonproliferation (with Harold Feiveson, Alexander Glaser, and Frank von Hippel, MIT Press, 2014).

Zia is Co-Chair of the International Panel on Fissile Materials (IPFM), a group of technical and policy experts from 18 countries working to reduce global stockpiles of nuclear weapon-useable material, and Co-Editor of Science & Global Security, an international journal of technical analysis for arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation policy. Mian received the 2014 Linus Pauling Legacy Award for “his accomplishments as a scientist and as a peace activist in contributing to the global effort for nuclear disarmament and for a more peaceful world.”

Nicholas Miller is the Dean’s Assistant Professor of Nuclear Security and Policy. His research focuses on international security, particularly on the causes and consequences of nuclear proliferation. His research has been published in the American Political Science ReviewInternational OrganizationInternational Security, the Journal of Conflict Resolution, and Security Studies. His dissertation won the 2015 Helen Dwight Reid Award from the American Political Science Association, awarded for the best dissertation in the fields of international relations, law, and politics. It also won the 2015 Kenneth N. Waltz Prize for the best dissertation in international security and arms control. He received his Ph.D. in Political Science in 2014 from MIT, where he remains a Research Affiliate of the Security Studies Program. He graduated with a B.A. in Government from Wesleyan University.

Sitakanta Mishra is currently an Assistant Professor in the School of Liberal Studies at Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University. He has been a Visiting Scholar at the Cooperative Management Centre of the Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque. He was formerly a Research Fellow at the Centre for Air Power Studies, New Delhi and Associate Editor of the Indian Foreign Affairs Journal, New Delhi.

C. Raja Mohan is Director of Carnegie India. A leading analyst of India’s foreign policy, Mohan is also an expert on South Asian security, great-power relations in Asia, and arms control. He is the foreign affairs columnist for the Indian Express, and a Visiting Research Professor at the Institute of South Asian Studies, National University of Singapore. He was a member of India’s National Security Advisory Board.

From 2009 to 2010, Mohan was the Henry Alfred Kissinger Chair in Foreign Policy and International Relations at the Library of Congress. Previously, he was a Professor of South Asian studies at the Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi and the Rajaratnam School of International Studies in Singapore. He also served as the Diplomatic Editor and Washington Correspondent of the Hindu.

Mohan’s most recent books are Modi’s World: Expanding India's Sphere of Influence (Harper Collins India, 2015) and India’s Naval Strategy and Asian Security (Routledge, 2016) (co-edited with Anit Mukherjee). His other books include Samudra Manthan: Sino-Indian Rivalry in the Indo-Pacific (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2012), Power Realignments in Asia: China, India and the United States (Sage, 2009) (co-edited with Alyssa Ayres), Impossible Allies: Nuclear India, United States and the Global Order (India Research Press, 2006), and Crossing the Rubicon: The Shaping of India’s New Foreign Policy (Palgrave, 2004).

Vipin Narang is Mitsui Career Development Associate Professor of Political Science at MIT and a member of MIT’s Security Studies Program. He received his Ph.D. from the Department of Government, Harvard University in May 2010, where he was awarded the Edward M. Chase Prize for the best dissertation in international relations. He holds a B.S. and M.S. in Chemical Engineering with distinction from Stanford University and an M. Phil with Distinction in International Relations from Balliol College, Oxford University, where he studied on a Marshall Scholarship. He has been a Fellow at Harvard University’s Olin Institute for Strategic Studies, a Predoctoral Fellow at Harvard University’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, and a Stanton Junior Faculty Fellow at Stanford University’s Center for International Security and Cooperation. His research interests include nuclear proliferation and strategy, South Asian security, and general security studies. His first book, Nuclear Strategy in the Modern Era (Princeton University Press, 2014), on the deterrence strategies of regional nuclear powers won the 2015 ISA International Security Studies Section Best Book Award. He is currently working on his second book, Strategies of Nuclear Proliferation (Princeton University Press, under contract), which explores how states pursue nuclear weapons. His work has been published in several journals including: International Security; Journal of Conflict Resolution; The Washington Quarterly; and International Organization.

Ruhee Neog is the Assistant Director of the Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (IPCS), New Delhi, and the coordinator of its Nuclear Security Program. Her research focuses on the nuclear weapons politics of India, Pakistan, Iran, and North Korea. Prior to IPCS, Ruhee worked as a political and parliamentary monitor at the House of Commons and the House of Lords, UK, and with the Labour Party, UK. She holds an M.A. in History of International Relations from the London School of Economics, and a B.A. in Literature in English from St. Stephen’s College, New Delhi.

George Perkovich is Vice President for Studies at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He works primarily on nuclear strategy and nonproliferation issues, and on South Asian security. Perkovich is the author of the prize-winning book, India’s Nuclear Bomb (University of California Press, 1999), which Foreign Affairs called “an extraordinary and perhaps definitive account of 50 years of Indian nuclear policymaking.” 7 Perkovich is co-author with James Acton of the 2008 Adelphi Paper, Abolishing Nuclear Weapons, and co-editor of the subsequent book, Abolishing Nuclear Weapons: A Debate. His writing has appeared in: Foreign Affairs; Foreign Policy; the Atlantic Monthly; the Weekly Standard; the New York Times; the Wall Street Journal; the Washington Post; the Los Angeles Times; and other publications. His essay in Foreign Affairs, “Giving Justice Its Due,” reflects ongoing work on the challenge of justice in international relations. On Iran and South Asian security affairs, he has advised many agencies of the U.S. government, and testified before both houses of Congress. Perkovich served as a Speechwriter and Foreign Policy Adviser to Senator Joe Biden (D-DE) from 1989-90. He has been a member of the National Academy of Science’s Committee on Arms Control and International Security, the Council on Foreign Relations Task Force on Nuclear Policy, and was a Principal Adviser to the International Commission on Nuclear Nonproliferation and Disarmament, a joint initiative of the governments of Japan and Australia.

Steven Pifer is the Director of the Arms Control and Non-Proliferation Initiative and a Senior Fellow with the Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence and the Center on the United States and Europe at the Brookings Institution. He focuses on nuclear arms control, Ukraine, and Russia. He has offered commentary on these issues on National Public Radio, PBS NewsHour, CNN, Fox News, BBC, and VOA, and his articles have run in The New York Times, The Washington Post, Financial Times, National Interest, Moscow Times, and Kyiv Post, among others. He is the author of The Eagle and the Trident: U.S.-Ukraine Relations in Turbulent Times (Brookings Institution Press, Spring 2017), and co-author with Michael O’Hanlon of The Opportunity: Next Steps in Reducing Nuclear Arms (Brookings Institution Press, 2012).

A retired Foreign Service officer, his more than 25 years with the State Department focused on U.S. relations with the former Soviet Union and Europe, as well as arms control and security issues. He served as deputy assistant secretary of state in the Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs with responsibilities for Russia and Ukraine (2001-2004), ambassador to Ukraine (1998-2000), and special assistant to the president and senior director for Russia, Ukraine and Eurasia on the National Security Council (1996-1997). In addition to Ukraine, Ambassador Pifer served at the U.S. embassies in Warsaw, Moscow, and London as well as with the U.S. delegation to the negotiation on intermediate-range nuclear forces in Geneva. From 2000 to 2001, he was a visiting scholar at Stanford’s Institute for International Studies.

His publications include “Nuclear Arms Control Choices for the Next Administration,” (Brookings Arms Control and Non-Proliferation Series, October 2016); “Obama’s Faltering Nuclear Legacy: the 3 R’s,” The Washington Quarterly (Summer 2015); “Bilateral and Multilateral Nuclear Arms Reductions” in the Routledge Handbook on Nuclear Proliferation and Policy (2015); “A Realist’s Rationale for a World without Nuclear Weapons” in “The War That Must Never Be Fought” (2015); and “Ukraine’s Perilous Balancing Act,” Current Events (March 2012). He has authored numerous op-eds and other articles.

Ambassador Pifer is a 1976 graduate of Stanford University with a Bachelor’s in Economics.

Barry Posen is a Ford International Professor of Political Science at MIT, Director of the MIT Security Studies Program and serves on the Executive Committee of Seminar XXI. He has written three books, Restraint-A New Foundation for U.S. Grand Strategy, Inadvertent Escalation: Conventional War and Nuclear Risks and The Sources of Military Doctrine. The latter won two awards: The American Political Science Association’s Woodrow Wilson Foundation Book Award, and Ohio State University’s Edward J. Furniss Jr. Book Award. He is also the author of numerous articles, including “The Case for Restraint,” The American Interest, (November/December 2007) and “Command of the Commons: The Military Foundation of U.S. Hegemony,” International Security, (Summer, 2003), He has been a Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellow; Rockefeller Foundation International Affairs Fellow; Guest Scholar at the Center for Strategic and International Studies; Woodrow Wilson Center Fellow; Smithsonian Institution; Transatlantic Fellow of the German Marshall Fund of the United States, and most recently Visiting Fellow at the John Sloan Dickey Center at Dartmouth College.

Shaukat Qadir is a retired soldier from the Pakistan army, the Founder and Vice President of the Islamabad Policy Research Institute, and now works as an independent analyst.

Rasul Baksh Rais is the Director General at the Institute of Strategic Studies in Islamabad. He has worked as a Professor of Political Science at Lahore University of Management Science (LUMS), a Professor/Director at Area Study Centre, an Associate Professor in the Department of International Relations at Quaid-i-Azam University in Islamabad, and a Quaid-i-Azam Distinguished Professor of Pakistan Studies at Columbia University. Throughout his career, Rais’ research has been geared towards political and security issues in South Asia, the Indian Ocean, and Afghanistan. He has a Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of Santa Barbara and numerous fellowships, including a Fulbright Fellowship at Wake Forest University, Social Science Research Fellowship at Harvard University, and Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship in International Relations at the University of California, Berkeley, making him an expert in his field.

Rais has authored, edited, and contributed chapters to various literary works. His books include: Recovering the Frontier State: War, Ethnicity and State in Afghanistan (Lexington Books, 2009); War without Winners: Afghanistan’s Uncertain Transition after the Cold War (Oxford University Press, 1994); Indian Ocean and the Superpowers: Economic, Political, and Strategic Perspectives (Croom Helm, 1986); and China and Pakistan: A Political Analysis of Relations (Progressive Publishers, 1977). He also edited State, Society and Democratic Change in Pakistan (Oxford University Press, 1997) and co-edited Pakistan, 1995 (Westview Press, 1995). Rais has written articles in Strategic Studies (Islamabad), Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, Asian Survey, Asian Affairs, Pakistan Journal of American Studies, Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, Current Affairs Digest, Ethnic Studies Report, India Review, and many more.

Rajesh Rajagopalan is Professor in International Politics at the Centre for International Politics, Organization, and Disarmament in the School of International Studies at Jawaharlal Nehru University. His areas of interest include international relations theory, military doctrines, and nuclear weapons and disarmament. Previously, he was Senior Fellow at the Observer Research Foundation and Research Fellow at the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. Rajagopalan also served as Deputy Secretary in the National Security Council Secretariat, Government of India (2000-2001). His recent books include Fighting Like a Guerrilla: The Indian Army and Counterinsurgency and Second Strike: Arguments about Nuclear War in South Asia. He holds a Ph.D. in Political Science from the City University of New York.

Rajeswari Rajagopalan is Senior Fellow and Head of the Nuclear and Space Policy Initiative at the Observer Research Foundation (ORF), New Delhi. Rajagopalan joined ORF after a five-year stint at the National Security Council Secretariat (2003-2007), where she was an Assistant Director. Prior to joining the NSCS, she was Research Officer at the Institute of Defence Studies and Analyses, New Delhi. She was also a Visiting Professor at the Graduate Institute of International Politics, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan in 2012. She is the author of four books: Nuclear Security in India (Observer Research Foundation, 2015), Clashing Titans: Military Strategy and Insecurity Among Asian Great Powers (KW Publishers, 2012), The Dragon's Fire: Chinese Military Strategy and Its Implications for Asia (Rupa & Co., 2009), and Uncertain Eagle: US Military Strategy in Asia (Rupa & Co., 2009). She has also co-authored and edited five other books, including Iran Nuclear Deal: Implications of the Framework Agreement (Global Policy Journal and Observer Research Foundation, 2015). Her research articles have appeared in edited volumes, and in peer reviewed journals such as India Review, Strategic Studies Quarterly, Air and Space Power Journal, International Journal of Nuclear Law, Strategic Analysis, and CLAWS Journal. Other writings have appeared in the Journal of Strategic Studies, Journal of Peace Research, and Contemporary South Asia and she has also contributed essays to newspapers such as the Wall Street Journal, Times of India, Hindustan Times, Economic Times, and Pioneer. She has also lectured at Indian military and policy institutions such as the Defence Service and Staff College (Wellington), National Defence College (New Delhi), Army War College (Mhow), and the Foreign Service Institute (New Delhi). She has also been invited to speak at international fora including the UN COPUOS (Vienna), Conference on Disarmament (Geneva), UNIDIR (Geneva), ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), and the European Union.

Robin Raphel is a consultant advising clients on political and economic developments in South Asia and the Middle East. She retired from the State Department for a second time in October 2014 after a five-year stint with the Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan. She served first as Assistance Coordinator in Pakistan at the behest of the late Ambassador Richard Holbrooke, and later as the Senior Advisor for Pakistan. Before returning to the State Department, Ambassador Raphel was Deputy Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, and then Senior Vice President for International Affairs for the consulting firm Cassidy and Associates. 8 Ambassador Raphel launched the congressionally-mandated South Asia Bureau at the State Department in 1993, serving as the first Assistant Secretary of State for this new regional bureau. She was U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Tunisia in the late 1990s. She became Vice President of the National Defense University in 2000, and in 2003 joined the first civilian team deployed to Iraq to set up the new civilian administration. As Senior Advisor to the Iraqi Ministry of Trade, she oversaw the restoration of the critical food distribution system. She then became Coordinator for Iraq Reconstruction, working with all national security agencies to ensure more effective and relevant reconstruction programs. Ambassador Raphel began her federal government career as an Economic Analyst for the Central Intelligence Agency, focusing on the oil-rich state of Indonesia. She later joined the Foreign Service, working on detail to U.S. Agency for International Development as an Economic/Financial Analyst in Pakistan. Returning to the State Department, she worked on inward investment policy and efforts to set standards for conduct of U.S. investors abroad, and on economic assistance issues for Israel. She served as Staff Aide to the Assistant Secretary for Near East and South Asian Affairs, and as Special Assistant to the Undersecretary for Political Affairs. She was posted to the U.S. Embassy in London where she covered regional issues involving the Middle East, South Asia, Africa, and East Asia, and later as Political Counselor in U.S. embassies in South Africa and India. Before joining the Foreign Service, she taught history at Damavand College in Tehran, Iran. Ambassador Raphel was born in Vancouver, Washington, and is a graduate of the University of Washington in history and economics. She did graduate studies at Newhall College in Cambridge, England in Modern European History. She holds a Master’s Degree in Economics from the University of Maryland.

Hasan Askari Rizvi is Professor Emeritus, Political Science, Punjab University, Lahore, and an independent political consultant with a vast experience of working with international think-tanks, universities and Pakistani and foreign media. He has over 35 years of teaching and research experience at the post-graduate level focusing on South Asian affairs, comparative politics, international relations, Pakistan domestic and foreign policy, civil-military relations, and the Middle East and the Gulf region. He has authored numerous books including: Military, State and Society in PakistanPakistan and the Geostrategic Environment: A Study of Foreign PolicyThe Military and Politics in Pakistan; and Internal Strife and External Intervention: India’s Role in the Civil War in East Pakistan (Bangladesh). Rizvi was conferred “Sitara-i-Imtiaz” by the President of Pakistan on March 23, 2010. He also serves on editorial review boards for the South Asian JournalIPRI Journal, and Pakistan Perspective. He completed his Ph.D. in International Relations from University of Pennsylvania.

Scott Sagan is the Caroline S.G. Munro Professor of Political Science, the Mimi and Peter Haas University Fellow in Undergraduate Education, and Senior Fellow at the Center for International Security and Cooperation and the Freeman Spogli Institute at Stanford University. He also serves as Project Chair for the American Academy of Arts and Sciences’ Initiative on New Dilemmas in Ethics, Technology, and War and as Senior Advisor for the American Academy of Arts and Sciences’ Global Nuclear Future Initiative. Before joining the Stanford faculty, Sagan was a Lecturer in the Department of Government at Harvard University. From 1984 to 1985, he served as Special Assistant to the Director of the Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in the Pentagon. Sagan has also served as a Consultant to the Office of the Secretary of Defense and at the Sandia National Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Sagan is the author of: Moving Targets: Nuclear Strategy and National Security (Princeton University Press, 1989); The Limits of Safety: Organizations, Accidents, and Nuclear Weapons (Princeton University Press, 1993); and, with co-author Kenneth N. Waltz, The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: An Enduring Debate (W.W. Norton, 2012). He is the co-editor of: Planning the Unthinkable (Cornell University Press, 2000) with Peter R. Lavoy and James L. Wirtz; the editor of Inside Nuclear South Asia (Stanford University Press, 2009); and co-editor of Learning from a Disaster: Improving Nuclear Safety and Security after Fukushima (Stanford University Press, 2016) with Edward D. Blandford. Sagan also is the guest editor of a two-volume special issue of Daedalus, New Dilemmas in Ethics, Technology, and War (forthcoming, Fall 2016, Winter 2017); co-editor of a two-volume special issue of Daedalus, On the Global Nuclear Future (Fall 2009 and Winter 2010), with Steven E. Miller. Sagan’s recent publications include “A Call for Global Nuclear Disarmament” in Nature (July 2012); “Atomic Aversion: Experimental Evidence on Taboos, Traditions, and the Non-Use of Nuclear Weapons” with Daryl G. Press and Benjamin A. Valentino in the American Political Science Review (February 8 2013); and, with Matthew Bunn, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences occasional paper, “A Worst Practices Guide to Insider Threats: Lessons from Past Mistakes” (2014). Sagan’s forthcoming book, Insider Threats, co-edited with Matthew Bunn, is expected to be published by Cornell University Press later in 2016. Sagan was the recipient of the National Academy of Sciences William and Katherine Estes Award in 2015 and the International Studies Association’s International Security Studies Section Distinguished Scholar Award in 2013. He has also won four teaching awards: Stanford’s 1998- 99 Dean’s Award for Distinguished Teaching; Stanford's 1996 Hoagland Prize for Undergraduate Teaching; the International Studies Association’s 2008 Innovative Teaching Award; and the Monterey Institute for International Studies’ Nonproliferation Education Award in 2009.

Naeem Salik (Ret.) served for more than five years as the Director of Arms Control and Disarmament Affairs in the Strategic Plans Division, the Secretariat of Pakistan’s National Command Authority. Before taking over as Director in May 2001, he had served as a Deputy Director since March 1999. In a career spanning 31 years, he gained experience of a variety of military assignments ranging from command, staff, instructional, and research-related pursuits. In recognition of his meritorious service, he was awarded Sitara-i-Imtiaz (Distinguished Service Medal). Salik was a Guest Scholar at the Brookings Institution from January 2006 to March 2007. Salik holds a Ph.D. from University of Western Australia (2015), M.Sc. in International Politics & Strategic Studies from the University of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK (1989), a B.Sc. Honours in War Studies from the Baluchistan University (1985), and a Master’s in History from the Punjab University (1981), and a B.A. from the Pakistan Military Academy (1974).

Nilanthi Samaranayake is the Project Director of the CNA study, Water Resource Competition in the Brahmaputra River Basin: China, India, and Bangladesh, to be published on May 4, 2016. She is a Strategic Studies Analyst at CNA; her research focuses on South Asia and Indian Ocean security. Prior to joining CNA, Samaranayake completed a fellowship at the National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR), where she investigated Sri Lanka’s deepening economic, military, and diplomatic ties with China. Her findings were published in the peer-reviewed journal, Asian Security. She has authored book chapters on the smaller countries of South Asia and their relations with China; the U.S.-China-India strategic triangle in the Indian Ocean region; and the island states in the Indian Ocean. Samaranayake’s analysis has been featured in World Politics Review, South Asia JournalThe National Interest, The Diplomat, YaleGlobal, and Asia Pacific Bulletin among other publications. She has appeared in media such as Al JazeeraSouth China Morning Post, and Foreign Policy. Her public speaking includes presentations in Washington as well as South Asia. Samaranayake analyzed public opinion for a decade at Pew Research Center in Washington. While there, she twice directed the quadrennial survey, “America’s Place in the World.” Samaranayake holds a M.Sc. in International Relations from the London School of Economics and Political Science and a B.A. in International Studies from American University.

Amy Sands is the Executive Director for Research Centers and Initiatives at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey. In this role, Amy works to align Middlebury’s research centers and initiative’s activities with the strategic priorities of the Institute and the larger Middlebury enterprise, advising the centers on governance issues and advancement strategies, and coordinating with Institute leadership and Middlebury colleagues in pursuit of these objectives. She also oversees the Institute’s memoranda of understanding. Prior to her current position, Amy served for eight years as the Provost of the Institute, two and a half years as the Dean of the Graduate School of International Policy Studies, and seven years as the Deputy Director of the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. From August 1994 to June 1996, she was Assistant Director of the Intelligence, Verification, and Information Management Bureau at the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA). Upon leaving the government, Dr. Sands received ACDA’s Distinguished Honor Award and the On-Site Inspection Agency’s Exceptional Civilian Service Medal. Before joining ACDA, she led the 10 Proliferation Assessments Section of Z Division (Intelligence) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. She is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and Women in International Security (WIIS), and was appointed in August 2014 to the Secretary of State’s International Security Advisory Board.

Jaganath Sankaran is a Research Scholar at the Center for International Security Studies (CISSM) at the University of Maryland. He works on problems that lie at the intersection of science, technology, and international security. Sankaran is part of a joint U.S.-Russian National Academies study on missile defense cooperation. He is also involved in researching the Asian missile defense architecture and its effect on U.S.-China strategic stability. Before joining CISSM, Sankaran was a Post-doctoral Research Associate at the National Security Education Center at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. He was previously a Fellow at the Kennedy School’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University, and a Stanton Nuclear Security Fellow at RAND Corporation. Sankaran received his Ph.D. from the Maryland School of Public Policy in 2012. Before coming to the University of Maryland for a Master’s in Engineering and Public Policy, Sankaran worked for three years with the Indian missile research and development establishment in the areas of missile astrodynamics and modeling. Sankaran has been published in: International Security; Strategic Studies Quarterly; Arms Control Today; and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists.

Shyam Saran is a career diplomat born on September 4, 1946. Since joining the Indian Foreign Service in 1970, he has served in several capitals of the world including Beijing, Tokyo, and Geneva. He has been India’s Ambassador to Myanmar, Indonesia, and Nepal, and High Commissioner to Mauritius. In the Ministry of External Affairs, New Delhi, Shyam Saran headed the Economic Division and the Multilateral Economic Division and also headed the East Asia Division which handles relations with China and Japan. As a Joint Secretary in the Prime Minister’s Office in 1991/92, he advised the Prime Minister on foreign policy, nuclear, and defense-related issues. After a career spanning 34 years in the Indian Foreign Service, Saran was appointed India’s Foreign Secretary in 2004 and held that position until his retirement from service in September 2006. Subsequent to his retirement, he was appointed Prime Minister’s Special Envoy for Indo-US Civil Nuclear issues and later as Special Envoy and Chief Negotiator on Climate Change. He concluded his assignment in Government in March 2010 and returned to being a private citizen. During his last two assignments, Shyam Saran served as Prime Minister’s personal representative or “Sherpa” at the Gleneagles and St. Petersburg G8+G5 summits and was present at the Toyako and L’Aquila Summits as an advisor on Climate Change issues. He also attended the Pittsburgh G-20 summit as a member of the Indian delegation. He currently is Chairman at the Research and Information System for Developing Countries (RIS), which is an autonomous think-tank specializing in studies on economic and trade related issues. He also is Senior Fellow with the Centre for Policy Research, a prestigious think-tank which covers a wide range of political, social and economic views, including international relations. Additionally, Saran has held a number of advisory positions after his retirement from government service. From 2013-15, he was Chairman of the National Security Advisory Board under the National Security Council of India. He was Co-Chair of the ASEAN-India Eminent Persons’ Group 2010-2012 and one of the international Commissioners at the Global Commission on Global Governance, Equity and Justice, co-chaired by Madeleine Albright, 10 Former U.S. Secretary of State, and Ibrahim Gambri, former Foreign Minister of Nigeria. He has been a Fisher Fellow at the Kennedy School at Harvard University in 2011 and a Fellow at the India Centre at Kings’ College, London in 2012. Last year, in 2015, he served as a Distinguished International Fellow at the Lowy Institute in Sydney, Australia. Currently, Shyam Saran Co-Chairs the India-Bhutan Eminent Persons’ Group and heads the Indian delegation to the India-China Track-2 talks held annually under the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy in Singapore. He is a member of the Track 1.5 India-China-U.S. trilateral talks of the India-Aspen India-U.S. group. Saran also has been associated with the corporate sector. He served as an independent director with Wipro from 2010-2014 and was on the boards of OVL and Indian Oil respectively. He is on the National Executive Council of FICCI and a member of the Advisory Board of the Bharti School of Public Policy, Mohali. On January 26, 2011, Shyam Saran was awarded the Padma Bhushan by the President of India for his contribution to Civil Service. The Padma Bhushan is the third highest national award in the country. Saran holds a post-graduate degree in Economics. He speaks Hindi, English, and Chinese and is conversant in French. He speaks and writes regularly on a variety of subjects.

Jayita Sarkar is currently Associate of the Project on Managing the Atom at Harvard University’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, and will join Massachusetts Institute of Technology as a Research Fellow in Fall 2016. She was a Research Fellow at Harvard’s Belfer Center, where she also held the Stanton Nuclear Security Fellowship. Her expertise is in international security, nuclear proliferation, foreign policy, South Asia, and qualitative research. Her research projects have been funded by: the Stanton Foundation; Harvard’s Belfer Center’s International Security Program and Project on Managing the Atom; Swiss National Science Foundation; Feris Foundation of America; Lyndon B. Johnson Foundation; and Gerald R. Ford Foundation, among others. Dr. Sarkar has published her research in peer-reviewed journals like Cold War History, International History Review, and Critique Internationale, among others. She has worked for think tanks through visiting research positions held at: the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars; Henry L. Stimson Center; Norwegian Institute for Defence 9 Studies; United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research; and the Institute for Defense Studies and Analyses. Dr. Sarkar held the Albert Gallatin Fellowship in International Affairs at Yale University and, until recently, was a visiting scholar at Columbia University’s Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies. She holds a Ph.D. in International History and Politics from the Graduate Institute Geneva in Switzerland.

Teresita Schaffer is an expert on economic, political, security, and risk management trends in India and Pakistan, as well as on the region that extends from Afghanistan through Bangladesh. She also serves as a Senior Adviser to McLarty Associates, a Washington-based international strategic advisory firm.

In her 30-year career in the U.S. Foreign Service, Schaffer was recognized as one of the State Department’s leading experts on South Asia, where she spent a total of 11 years. Her other career focus was on international economic issues. She served in U.S. embassies in Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh, and from 1992 to 1995 as U.S. Ambassador in Sri Lanka. During her assignments in the State Department in Washington, she was Director of the Office of International Trade and later Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for the Near East and South Asia, at that time the senior South Asia policy position in the State Department. She created a South Asia Program at the Center for Strategic and International Studies and directed it from 1998 to 2010.

Schaffer’s book How Pakistan Negotiates with the United States: Riding the Roller Coaster, which she co-wrote with her husband, Howard B. Schaffer, was published in 2011. She is also the author of India and the U.S. in the 21st Century: Reinventing Partnership, widely recognized as the leading work on the post-2000 U.S.-India relationship and its prospects, published in 2009. Earlier writings included “Pakistan’s Future and U.S. Policy Options” (2004); “India at the Crossroads: Confronting the Challenge of HIV/AIDS” (2004) and a series of other studies on HIV and public health issues in India; and two studies on women in development in Bangladesh (1985).

Schaffer is a trustee of the Asia Foundation, and serves on the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Diplomacy. She received a Bachelor’s from Bryn Mawr College and studied at the Institut d’Etudes Politiques in Paris. She did graduate work in economics at Georgetown University. She speaks Hindi, Urdu, French, Swedish, German, and Italian, and she has studied Bangla and Sinhala.

Deborah Schneider is the Staff Director, Nuclear Risk Reduction Center, Bureau of Arms Control and Verification and Compliance, U.S. Department of State. She is responsible for U.S. compliance with the notification regimes associated with international conventional and nuclear arms control treaties and confidence-building agreements. She directs the 24/7 watch center that maintains the permanent communications links with Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine in addition to links with the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Before assuming her current position, Ms. Schneider was the Representative of the U.S. Departments of State and Energy on the staff of the President’s Daily Brief. She previously has served in the State Department as a Senior Coordinator on Cyber Operations Policy; a Coordinator for Crisis Task Forces on Benghazi, WikiLeaks, and the 2010 Haitian earthquake; a Special Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of State; a Senior Watch Officer in the Secretary’s Operations Center; and a Deputy Director and Acting Office Director in the Bureau for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 11 Ms. Schneider has been awarded multiple Superior Honor and Meritorious Honor awards by the Department of State, and a National Intelligence Award from the Director of National Intelligence in 2011. She spent a year as an Excellence in Government Fellow with the Partnership for Public Service, and was invited back as a cohort coach for that program in 2012. Dr. Schneider came to Washington in 2000, from SUNY Binghamton, via a sabbatical funded by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, during which she helped manage a USDA program on privatizing agribusiness in Armenia. She subsequently partnered with Rutgers University to direct an 18-month project on rural women’s leadership in Armenia. At SUNY Binghamton she taught anthropology and political science as an Assistant Professor. She was a post-doctoral fellow at the Remarque Institute for European Studies at NYU, and did her doctoral fieldwork in Poland in the 1990s on post-Soviet decentralization and privatization, which resulted in the publication of a book, Being Goral. She has a Ph.D. and M.A. from the University of California, Davis, and a B.A. from Drew University.

Manpreet Sethi is a Senior Fellow at the Centre for Air Power Studies, New Delhi where she leads the project on nuclear security. She is an expert on the entire range of nuclear issues with eight books and over 80 papers in academic journals of repute to her credit. Over the last 18 years she has been researching and writing on subjects related to nuclear energy, strategy, nonproliferation, disarmament, arms control and ballistic missile defense. She is recipient for the year 2014 of the prestigious K. Subrahmanyam award, an honor conferred by the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses on a scholar for excellence in strategic and security studies.

Sheel Kant Sharma is a former Indian Ambassador. He joined the Indian Foreign Service in 1973 and subsequently served as Joint Secretary for Disarmament and International Security Affairs, India’s Ambassador to Austria, Permanent Representative of India to all international organizations in Vienna, the Indian Governor on the IAEA Board of Governors, and Secretary General of SAARC (2008-2011). Sharma represented India at the Conference on Disarmament (1983-1986), United Nations General Assembly (1983-1986, 2000-2003), U.N. Disarmament Commission (1984-1986, 2001), IAEA General Conference (1994-1999, 2004-2008), and many more. He also worked closely with bilateral Indo-U.S. nuclear relations, space, export control, and nonproliferation.

Sharma received a Master’s in Nuclear Physics as well as a Ph.D. in High Energy Physics from the Indian Institute of Technology in Mumbai. His work has been published in Physical Review D, Physical Review Letters, Times of India, Mainstream, and Sunday. Sharma authored a UNIDIR Monograph on Verification of Fissile Materials Cut-Off and Non-use of Nuclear Weapons (1992) and an article in the IAEA Bulletin (1995) and co-authored the UN Report on Verification (1991), the UN Report on Defensive Security Concepts during his time as a member of the UN Study Group on Defensive Security Concepts from 1991-1993, and the UN Panel’s report on missiles in all their aspects (2002).

Swaran Singh is a Professor for Diplomacy and Disarmament at Centre for International Politics, Organization and Disarmament (CIPOD), School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University (New Delhi). He is President of Association of ASIA Scholars, General Secretary of Indian Association of Asian & Pacific Studies, Guest Professor at Research Institute of Indian Ocean Economies, Yunnan University of Finance and Economics (China) and Advisory Board Member of Atlanta-based Communities Without Borders Inc. (United States). Prof Singh has 25 years of experience in research and teaching and he lectures at major institutions like National Defense College, Defense Services Staff College, and all other major military institutions as also Foreign Service Institute, Indian Institute for Public Administration etc. also contributes to radio and television discussions. JNU has already awarded 18 Ph.D.’s and 37 M.Phils. under his supervision.

Singh is formerly Visiting Professor at Australian National University (Canberra), Science Po (Bordeaux, France) University of Peace (Costa Rica), Peking, Fudanand Xiamen Universities, and Shanghai Institute of International Studies and Center for Asian Studies (Hong Kong University) in China, Asian Center (University of the Philippines), and Chuo, Hiroshima and Kyoto Universities (in Japan), as also Guest Faculty at Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (Sweden). He was Academic Consultant (2003-2007) at Center de Sciences Humaines (New Delhi), Research Fellow, Institute for Defense Studies and Analysis (New Delhi).

Singh is on the Editorial Board of Asian Policy & Politics (Washington DC), Journal of the Indian Ocean Region (Hyderabad), Journal of Indian Ocean Studies (Delhi), and Millennial Asia (Delhi), Suraksha Chintan (Meerut) as also a referee on various academic journals. He also contributes to print and visual media at home and abroad. He was a member of South Asia Review Committee (2007-2009) of Asian Scholarship Foundation (Bangkok) He has published in Journal of International Affairs (Columbia University), Security Challenges (Australian National University), Journal of Indian Ocean Region (Perth, Australia), Issues & Studies (Taiwan National University), African Security (Institute of Security Studies), BISS Journal (Dhaka), Asian Studies Journal, Financial & Economic Review, Xiaman University Journal, International Studies (China), and Strategic Analysis, USI Journal, Peace Initiatives, Journal of Indian Ocean Studies, Millennial Asia, Journal of Air Power Studies, South Asian Survey, Indian Defense Review, and China Report (in India).

Andrew Small is a Senior Transatlantic Fellow with the German Marshall Fund’s Asia Program, which he established in 2006. His research focuses on U.S.-China relations, Europe-China relations, Chinese policy in South Asia, and broader developments in China's foreign and economic policy. He was based in GMF’s Brussels office for five years, and worked before that as the Director of the Foreign Policy Centre’s Beijing office, as a Visiting Fellow at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, and an ESU scholar in the office of Senator Edward M. Kennedy. His articles and papers have been published in the New York Times, Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, the Washington Quarterly, as well as many other journals, magazines, and newspapers. He is the author of the book The China-Pakistan Axis: Asia’s New Geopolitics, published with Hurst/Oxford University Press in 2015.

Dave Smith is the former U.S. Army Attaché to Pakistan and currently works as an independent consultant. He previously worked as a consultant to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and a variety of projects for the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, C.A. and the Stimson Center in Washington, DC. He retired from government service in May 2012 after serving as the Senior Defense Intelligence Analyst for Pakistan in the Defense Intelligence Agency. Before that, he was the Senior Country Director for Pakistan in the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Policy). A career U.S. Army Officer, he retired in 2003 after 34 years of service. His last military assignment was a three-year tour of duty as Army Attaché in the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan, his second assignment in that capacity. He has frequently lectured on Pakistan at: the State Department’s Foreign Service Institute; Georgetown University; the U.S. Army War College; the National Defense University; and several agencies of the United States government.

Rakesh Sood is a Post-Graduate in Physics and additionally in Economics and Defense studies. He has over 38 years of experience in the field of foreign affairs, economic diplomacy, and international security issues. Before joining the Indian Foreign Service in 1976, Ambassador Sood worked for a couple of years in the private sector. Ambassador Sood initially served in the Indian missions at Brussels, Dakar, Geneva, and Islamabad in different capacities and as Deputy Chief of Mission in Washington, later in his career. He set up the Disarmament and International Security Affairs Division in the Foreign Ministry, which he led for eight years till the end of 2000. During this period, Ambassador Sood was in charge of: multilateral disarmament negotiations; bilateral dialogues with Pakistan; and strategic dialogues with other countries including the United States, United Kingdom, France, and Israel (especially after the nuclear tests in 1998). He also dealt with India’s role in the ASEAN Regional Forum, as part of the ‘Look East’ policy. He then served as India’s first Ambassador – Permanent Representative to the Conference on Disarmament at the United Nations in Geneva. He also chaired a number of international Working Groups including those relating to negotiations on landmines and cluster munitions and was a member of UN Secretary General’s Disarmament Advisory Board (2002-03). Subsequently, he was India’s Ambassador to Afghanistan from 2005 to early 2008, Ambassador to Nepal from 2008 to 2011, and to France from 2011 to March 2013. In September 2013, Ambassador Sood was appointed Special Envoy of the Prime Minister for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Issues, a position he held until May 2014. 12 Since his retirement he has been writing and commenting regularly in both print and audio visual media on India’s foreign policy, its economic dimensions, and regional and international security issues. He is a frequent speaker/contributor at various policy planning groups and reputed thinktanks in India and overseas.

Leonard Spector is Deputy Director of the Institute of International Studies’ James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS), and leads the Center’s Washington D.C. office. Spector joined CNS from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), where he served as an Assistant Deputy Administrator for Arms Control and Nonproliferation at the National Nuclear Security Administration.

His principal responsibilities at the Department of Energy (DOE) included development and implementation of DOE arms control and nonproliferation policy with respect to international treaties; U.S. domestic and multilateral export controls; inspection and technical cooperation activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency; civilian nuclear activities in the U.S. and abroad; initiatives in regions of proliferation concern, including the canning of plutonium-spent nuclear fuel in North Korea and Kazakhstan; and transparency provisions of bilateral agreements with Russia covering the purchase of weapons-grade uranium and the cessation of plutonium production. Additionally, he managed the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention and the Nuclear Cities Initiative programs.

Prior to his tenure at DOE, he served as Senior Associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and Director of its Nuclear Non-Proliferation Project. He also established the Program on Post-Soviet Nuclear Affairs at Carnegie’s Moscow Center. Before joining the Carnegie Endowment, Spector served as Chief Counsel to the U.S. Senate Energy and Proliferation Subcommittee, where he assisted in drafting the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. He began his career in nuclear nonproliferation as a Special Counsel at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Spector has served on senior advisory panels at the Sandia National Laboratories, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the National Research Council of the American Academy of Sciences. He has also served as Secretary and Member of the Board of Trustees of the Henry L. Stimson Center, and is currently a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Washington, D.C. Bar.

Spector is the author or co-author of six books and numerous articles on nonproliferation and comments frequently on this subject in the media. His current research focuses on strategies to challenge proliferant states’ continued possession and use of illicitly procured dual-use nuclear goods and implementation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action limiting Iran’s nuclear program, with particular attention to financial sanctions.

Spector’s recent work includes Combating Nuclear Commodity Smuggling: A System of Systems (Monterey, CA, and Washington, D.C.: James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, 2014), co-authored with Egle Murauskaite, and, with co-editors Matthew Bunn, Martin Malin, and William Potter, Countering Black Market Nuclear Technology Networks (Cambridge University Press, forthcoming).

Yun Sun is a Senior Associate with the East Asia Program at the Stimson Center. Her expertise is in Chinese foreign policy, United States-China relations and China's relations with neighboring countries and authoritarian regimes. From 2011 to early 2014, she was a Visiting Fellow at the Brookings Institution, jointly appointed by the Foreign Policy Program and the Global Development Program, where she focused on Chinese national security decisionmaking processes and China-Africa relations. From 2008 to 2011, Yun was the China Analyst for the International Crisis Group based in Beijing, specializing on China’s foreign policy towards conflict countries and the developing world. Prior to ICG, she worked on United States-Asia relations in Washington, DC for five years. Yun earned her Master’s degree in International Policy and Practice from George Washington University, as well as an M.A. in Asia Pacific studies and a B.A. in International Relations from Foreign Affairs College in Beijing

Mushahid Hussain Syed is Chairman of the Pakistani Senate’s Committee on Defence. He is also a journalist, geo-strategist, politician, and an avid writer and reader. Born in Sialkot, Syed was raised in a family of five siblings. His father, Col. (Ret.) Amjad Hussain Sayed, was a prominent veteran of the Pakistan struggle and a recipient of the gold medal from the prime minister in 1997 for his outstanding services. His mother, Sameen Sayed, belonged to an eminent old family of Lahore and was also an activist in the Pakistan Movement. Hailing from a middle-class background, Syed was raised in a progressive and forward looking atmosphere, where quality education and hard work were of central focus.

Nina Tannenwald is a Faculty Fellow at the Watson Institute and Director of the International Relations Program. She is also a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Political Science. She was previously Assistant Professor at the University of Colorado at Boulder, and Assistant and then Associate Research Professor at the Watson Institute. She has been a Visiting Professor at Cornell and Stanford Universities, a Carnegie Scholar, and a MacArthur Foundation Research and Writing Fellow in International Peace and Security. In 2012-13 she served as a Franklin Fellow in the Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation in the U.S. State Department. Tannenwald was Director of the International Relations Program at the Institute from 2003 to 2006. Prior to coming to Brown, she held fellowships at Stanford’s Center for International Security and Cooperation and Harvard’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. She holds a Master’s degree from the Columbia School of International and Public Affairs and a Ph.D. in International Relations from Cornell University. ​

Sadia Tasleem is a Lecturer at Quaid-i-Azam University’s Department of Defense and Strategic Studies in Islamabad, Pakistan. As a Robin Copeland Memorial Fellow for Nonproliferation from 2014 to 2015, she undertook a research project entitled “Creating a Constituency for Unilateral Nuclear Arms Control in Pakistan.” Previously, she worked as a Senior Research Scholar at the Institute for Strategic Studies, Research, and Analysis at the National Defense University, a Research Associate at the International Islamic University, and a Lecturer in the Department of International Relations at the National University of Modern Languages in Islamabad.

Ashley Tellis is a Senior Associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace specializing in international security, defense, and Asian strategic issues. While on assignment to the U.S. Department of State as Senior Adviser to the Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs, he was intimately involved in negotiating the civil nuclear agreement with India. Previously, he was commissioned into the Foreign Service and served as Senior Adviser to the Ambassador at the U.S. embassy in New Delhi. He also served on the National Security Council staff as Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Strategic Planning and Southwest Asia. Prior to his government service, Tellis was Senior Policy Analyst at the RAND Corporation and Professor of Policy Analysis at the RAND Graduate School. He is the author of India’s Emerging Nuclear Posture and co-author of Interpreting China’s Grand Strategy: Past, Present, and Future. He is the research director of the Strategic Asia Program at the National Bureau of Asian Research and co-editor of the program’s twelve most recent annual volumes, including this year’s Strategic Asia 2015–16: Foundations of National Power. In addition to numerous Carnegie and RAND reports, his academic publications have appeared in many edited volumes and journals, and he is frequently called to testify before Congress. Tellis is a member of several professional organizations related to defense and international studies including: the Council on Foreign Relations; the International Institute of Strategic Studies; the United States Naval Institute; and the Navy League of the United States.

Cindy Vestergaard is a Senior Associate with the Nuclear Safeguards Program at the Stimson Center. Vestergaard was previously a Senior Researcher at the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) in Copenhagen, Denmark. Her current research focuses on the global governance of natural uranium, including major suppliers (Australia, Canada, Kazakhstan) and the debates surrounding potential emerging suppliers (such as Greenland and Tanzania) and consumers (i.e. India). Vestergaard’s research portfolio also includes chemical weapons disarmament, biosecurity, and import/export controls. Before joining DIIS, Vestergaard worked on non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament policy and programming at Canada’s Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Positions, among others, included Senior Policy Advisor, Global Partnership Program; Senior Policy Advisor, Foreign Intelligence Division; and Political Officer at Canada’s Mission to Hungary and Slovenia. Vestergaard has been an external lecturer at the University of Copenhagen; a regular contributor to media outlets; and presents nationally and internationally on weapons of mass destruction, proliferation and disarmament issues. She has a B.A. in International Relations from the University of British Columbia, M.A. in International Relations and European Studies from Central European University (Budapest, Hungary), and Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of Copenhagen.

Marvin Weinbaum is a Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and served as an Analyst for Pakistan and Afghanistan in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Intelligence and Research from 1999 to 2003. He is currently a Scholar-in-Residence at the Middle East Institute in Washington, DC. At Illinois, Weinbaum served for fifteen years as the Director of the Program in South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies. His research, teaching, and consultancies have focused on the issues of national security, state building, democratization, and political economy in Afghanistan and Pakistan. He is the author or editor of six books and has written more than 100 journal articles and book chapters. Weinbaum was awarded Fulbright Research Fellowships for Egypt in 1981–82 and Afghanistan in 1989–90, and was a Senior Fellow at the United States Institute of Peace in 1996–97. He has been the recipient of research awards from the Social Science Research Council, the Ford Foundation, the American Political Science Association, and other granting agencies.

Amy Woolf is a Specialist in Nuclear Weapons Policy in the Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division of the Congressional Research Service at the Library of Congress. She provides Congress with information, analysis, and support on issues related to United States and Russian nuclear forces and arms control. She has authored many studies and participated in numerous seminars on these issues, addressing such topics as nuclear weapons strategy and doctrine, nuclear force structure, strategic arms control and the United States-Russian arms control agenda, ballistic missile defense policy, and issues related to nuclear weapons and threat-reduction programs Russia and other former Soviet states. Woolf has spoken at numerous conferences and workshops, discussing issues such as congressional views on arms control and ballistic missile defenses, cooperative threat reduction with Russia, and United States nuclear weapons policy.

Before joining CRS, Woolf was a member of the Research Staff at the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) in Alexandria, Virginia.  She also spent a year at the Department of Defense, working on the 1994 Nuclear Posture Review.

Woolf received a Master’s in Public Policy from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University in 1983 and a B.A. in Political Science from Stanford University in 1981.

Diana Wueger is a Faculty Associate for Research with the Center on Contemporary Conflict at the Naval Postgraduate School, where she has worked on a range of projects related to nuclear deterrence, strategic stability, naval strategy, limited war, U.S.-Russian relations, and South Asian security dynamics. She completed her Master’s degree in National Security Affairs, with a curricular focus in Strategic Studies. Her thesis examined the impact of India’s efforts to develop an SSBN fleet on its deterrent relationships with China and Pakistan, drawing on evidence and lessons from the U.S.’s Cold War experience.

In addition to her work at NPS, Diana has written on a range of international security and small arms issues for numerous publications, both print and online, including Democracy JournalThe AtlanticUnited Nations DispatchAviation Week: Defense Technology Edition, and the National Defense University Press blog. Prior to joining NPS, Diana worked in Washington, DC for the Brookings Institution and the Center for the Study of Services in institutional advancement and business development. She is a graduate of Oberlin College, where she earned High Honors in Politics for her thesis on small-arms proliferation dynamics after the Cold War.

Moeed Yusuf is the Associate Vice President of the Asia Center at the U.S. Institute of Peace (USIP). Yusuf has been engaged in expanding USIP’s work on Pakistan/South Asia since 2010. His current research focuses on youth and democratic institutions in Pakistan, policy options to mitigate militancy in Pakistan and the South Asian region in general, and U.S. role in South Asian crisis management. 13 Before joining USIP, Yusuf was a Fellow at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for the Study of the Longer-Range Future at the Pardee School of Global Studies at Boston University, and concurrently a Research Fellow at the Mossavar-Rahmani Center at Harvard Kennedy School. He has also worked at the Brookings Institution. In 2007, he co-founded Strategic and Economic Policy Research, a private sector consultancy firm in Pakistan. Yusuf has also consulted for a number of Pakistani and international organizations including the Asian Development Bank, World Bank, and the Stockholm Policy Research Institute, among others. From 2004-2007, he was a full-time consultant with the Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI), Pakistan’s premier development-sector think tank. Yusuf taught in Boston University’s Political Science and International Relations Departments as a Senior Teaching Fellow in 2009. He had previously taught at the defense and strategic studies department at Quaid-e-Azam University, Pakistan. He lectures regularly at the U.S. Department of State’s Foreign Service Institute and has also lectured at the Pakistan Military Staff College and at NATO’s Center of Excellence-Defense Against Terrorism in Ankara, Turkey. He has published widely in national and international journals, professional publications and magazines. He writes regularly for Dawn, Pakistan’s leading English daily. He also frequently appears as an expert on U.S. and Pakistani media. His latest books – South Asia 2060: Envisioning Regional Futures (Adil Najam and Moeed Yusuf, eds.) and Getting it Right in Afghanistan (Scott Smith, Moeed Yusuf, and Colin Cookman, eds.) – were published by Anthem Press, UK, and U.S. Institute of Peace Press respectively in 2013. He is also the editor of Pakistan's Counter-terrorism Challenge (Georgetown University Press, 2014) and Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in South Asia: From a Peacebuilding Lens (U.S. Institute of Peace Press, 2014). Yusuf has served on a number of important task forces, advisory councils, working groups, and governing boards, both in the U.S. and Pakistan. In 2013, he was selected to Nobel laureate, Pugwash International’s ‘Council’ (governing body) and subsequently became the youngest member ever to be included in its global executive committee to serve a six-year term. He holds a Master’s in International Relations and Ph.D. in Political Science from Boston University.