The U.S.-India 123 Agreement
On August 3, 2007, the State Department released the text of the Agreement for Cooperation Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of India Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (123 Agreement)
Congressional Action on the Cooperation Act
- The conference bill was agreed to by the House on December 8, 2006 and by the Senate on December 9, 2006. The bill was signed by the President on December 18, 2006 and became Public Law 109-401. The President issued a signing statement on the bill.
- The House passed its version of the bill on July 27, 2006 by a vote of 359-68. The bill passed the House International Relations Committee (HIRC) by a vote of 37-5. In addition, the HIRC released its own report on the bill.
- The Senate passed its version of the bill on November 16, 2006 by a vote of 85-12-3. The bill passed the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (SFRC) by a vote of 16-2. The SFRC released its own report on the bill.
Stimson Center Publications
- Michael Krepon, “U.S.-India Deal Done Now, Reckoning to Come Later,” The Henry L. Stimson Center, October 1, 2008.
- Michael Krepon, “Likely Consequences of the Nuclear Suppliers Group Decision,” The Henry L. Stimson Center, September 8, 2008
- Michael Krepon, “Faits Accomplis, Complicity, and Nuclear Proliferation,” The Henry L. Stimson Center, August 7, 2008.
- Michael Krepon, “Proliferation: Then and Now,” The Henry L. Stimson Center, January 8, 2007.
- Michael Krepon, “Negating American Power,”The Henry L. Stimson Center, November 1, 2006.
- Michael Krepon, “Geo-strategic Partners or Partners of Convenience”, The Henry L. Stimson Center, September 21, 2006.
- Michael Krepon, “Update on the US-India Nuclear Cooperation Agreement,”The Henry L. Stimson Center, August 21, 2006.
- Adil Sultan, Visiting Fellow, “Indo-US Nuclea Cooperation Agreement: Implications for South Asia Regional Security”, The Henry L. Stimson Center, July 2006.
- Michael Krepon, “Upholding Nonproliferation,” The Henry L. Stimson Center, June 15, 2006.
- Michael Krepon, “Betting the Ranch on the US-India Nuclear Deal,” The Henry L. Stimson Center, June 5, 2006.
- Michael Krepon, “The Bush Administration Tables a Draft “Cutoff” Treaty Analysis of Key Elements,” The Henry L. Stimson Center, May 18, 2006.
- Michael Krepon, “A Guide to the Perplexed: Q&A on the US-India Nuclear Deal,” The Henry L. Stimson Center, April 24, 2006.
- Michael Krepon, “The US-India Nuclear Deal: Another Wrong Turn in the War on Terror,” The Henry L. Stimson Center, March 29, 2006.
- Michael Krepon,“Are the Basic Assumptions Behind the Bush Administration’s Nuclear Deal with India Sound?” The Henry L. Stimson Center, March 15, 2006.
- Michael Krepon, “In Pursuit of a Nuclear Deal with India,” The Henry L. Stimson Center, February 21, 2006.
- Michael Krepon, “Negotiating the US-India Nuclear Cooperation Deal,” The Henry L. Stimson Center, January 23, 2006.
- Michael Krepon, “Is the U.S.- India Nuclear Cooperation Agreement Good or Bad for Proliferation?”, The Henry L. Stimson Center, August 31, 2005.
Michael Krepon, “Changing the Rules of Nuclear Commerce: Will More Commerce Equal More Proliferation?”, The Henry L. Stimson Center, July 15, 2005.
US and Indian Government Publications and Statements
- US-India Joint Statement, PM Singh Visit to Washington, July 18, 2005
- Questions Submitted to Under Secretaries Nicholas Burns and Robert Joseph by Chairman Richard G. Lugar, Senate Foreign Relations Committee, November 2, 2005
- Letter from the US State Department to Congressman Edward Markey, January 17, 2006
- India’s Separation Plan, March 2006
- Draft Proposal to NSG, March 2006
- US-India Joint Statement, President Bush Visit to New Delhi, March 2, 2006
- PM Singh’s Suo-Motu Statement on India’s Separation Plan, March 7, 2006
- White House Statement of Administration Policy regarding House Bill’s passage, July 26, 2006
- PM Signh’s Reply to Discussion in Rajya Sabha (Excerpts), August 17, 2006
- White House Statement of Administration Policy regarding Senate Bill’s passage, November 16, 2006
- Reply of the External Affairs Minister, Mr. Pranab Mukherjee in Lok Sabha to a Parliament Question on the current status of deal, November 23, 2006
- Suo Motu Statement (Excerpts) by External Affairs Minister, Mr. Pranab Mukherjee in Lok Sabha, December 12, 2006
- PM Singh’s intervention in Lok Sabha (Excerpts), December 18, 2006
- The House International Relations Committee held hearings on May 11, 2006 opening statements and testimony from the various witnesses can be found here: The Honorable Henry J. Hyde, The Honorable Jim Kolbe, The Honorable Edward J. Markey, Ashley J. Tellis, Ph.D., Leonard Weiss, Ph.D., Mr. Daryl Kimball, Mr. Fred McGoldrick, and Richard A. Falkenrath, Ph.D.
- The Senate Foreign Relations Committee held hearings again on April 26, 2006, testimony from the hearing is available here. Ronald Lehman’s testimony can be found here.
- Secretary Rice testifed in front of the House International Relations Committee and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on April 5, 2006, her testimony can be found here and here.
- Further testimony to Congress from various experts can be found at the following locations: Ashton B. Carter, Stephen P. Cohen, Robert J. Einhorn, Robert L. Gallucci, Gary Milhollin, Henry Sokolski, and Ashley J. Tellis.
- The House International Relations Committee held hearings on November 16, 2005, testimony can be found at the following links: Chairman Henry J. Hyde, Representative James A. Leach, Ashley J. Tellis, Stephen P. Cohen, Francine R. Frankel, and Satu P. Limaye
- Michael Krepon’s remarks before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (November 2, 2005).
By laying out a set of fundamental principles associated with changes in public law, and by establishing conditions for different levels of relaxation, the Congress could provide consistency and clarity that are lacking in the July 2005 Joint Statement, while strengthening global norms against proliferation. Improved bilateral ties with India will continue to proceed on many fronts, including trade, investment, non-nuclear energy, agriculture, defense cooperation, and public health issues. There is no compelling reason why improved relations should come at a great cost to the non-proliferation norms that have buttressed national and international security.
The prepared remarks of Henry Sokolski, Ashton Carter, and Ron Lehman in addition to testimony from administration officials may be downloaded from the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.
- The House International Relations Committee held hearings on October 26, 2005 on the nonproliferation consequences of the the US-India deal, testimony from various witnesses can be found at: Chairman Henry J. Hyde, Representative James A. Leach, Robert J. Einhorn, Neil Joeck, Henry Sokolski, Leonard Spector, David Albright.
- The House International Relations Committee held hearings on September 8, 2005, the transcipt can be found at here, and testimony at the following links: Chairman Henry J. Hyde, Representative James A. Leach, R. Nicholas Burns, Robert Joseph.
Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports
- CRS Report RL33072, US-India Bilateral Agreements in 2005, K. Alan Kronstadt, September 8, 2005.
- CRS Report RL33292, India’s Nuclear Separation Plan: Issues and Views, Sharon Squassoni, March 3, 2006.
- CRS Memorandum, Administration’s Proposed NSG Decision on Nuclear Cooperation with India, Sharon Squassoni, April 5, 2006.
- CRS Memorandum, The U.S.-Indian Nuclear Cooperation Initiative and Article I Obligations Under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), Sharon Squassoni, June 19, 2006.
- CRS Report RL33016, US Nuclear Cooperation with India: Issues for Congress, Sharon Squassoni, June 27, 2006.
- CRS Report RS22474, Banning Fissile Material Production for Nuclear Weapons: Prospects for a Treaty (FMCT), Sharon Squassoni, Andrew Demkee, and Jill Marie Parillo, July 14, 2006.
- CRS Report RL33561, US-India Nuclear Cooperation: A Side-By-Side Comparison of Current Legislation, Sharon Squassoni and Jill Marie Parillo, December 22, 2006.
CRS Report RL33292, India’s Nuclear Separation Plan: Issues and Views, Sharon Squassoni and Jill Marie Parillo, December 22, 2006.
Notable External Publications
- Ashley Tellis, “Atoms for War? US-Indian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation and India’s Nuclear Arsenal,” Carnegie Endowment Report, June 2006.
- Ashley Tellis, “Should the U.S. Sell Nuclear Technology to India? Part II,” YaleGlobal Online, November 10, 2005.
- Henry Sokolski, “The India Syndrome: U.S. Nonproliferation Policy Melts Down”,The Weekly Standard, August 1, 2005.
- George Perkovich, Faulty Promises: The U.S.-India Nuclear Deal,” Policy Outlook No. 21, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, September 2005.
San Nunn, “Pig in a Poke,” Wall Street Journel, May 23, 2006.
Stimson Center Events
- Stimson Center Visiting Fellow Wing Commander Adil Sultan presented his research on the regional implications of the nuclear deal. (July 12, 2006).
Former Indian Amabassador to the IAEA Amb. T.P. Sreenivasan and current member and former Chairman of India’s Atomic Energy Commission Dr. M.R. Srinivasan participated in a panel discussion of the initiative. The event was cosponsored by the Brookings Institution and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. (December 7, 2005).
Stimson Center in the News
- New York Times, “Senate Approves Indian Nuclear Deal,” October 1, 2008
- Washington Times, “Dealing With India’s Nuclear Weapons Ambitions,” op-ed by Michael Krepon, September 28, 2008
- Voice of America, “US-India Nuclear Deal Under Scrutiny by Congress,” April 3, 2006.
- India Today, “Terms of Endearment,” March 6, 2006.
- Times of India, “No Exemption for India,” op-ed by Michael Krepon, February 7, 2006.
- Outlook India, “When in doubt, shut up,” February 6, 2006.
- India Abroad, “India’s lethargy could torpedo N-deal: US,” February 3, 2006.
- Indo-Asian News Service, “No media build-up yet for Bush’s trip to India,” January 29, 2006.
- The Hindu, “Coming to Terms with Nuclear Regime Change,” January 28, 2006.
- International Herald Tribune, “India casts a wide net for energy,” January 25, 2006.
- Washington Post, “US Troops on Front Line of Expanding India Ties,” January 25, 2006.
- United Press International, “US pushes nuclear deal with India,” November 3, 2005.
- Boston Globe, “US to aid India on nuclear power,” July 19, 2005.