Nonproliferation
Resource
Fact Sheet

Spent Nuclear Fuel in Sweden

Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Sweden

  • June 2, 2020
  • 4:15 pm

Highlights

6,758 MTU spent nuclear fuel in storage (2016)
4,000 MTU spent nuclear fuel projected by 2050
1972 First year of commercial nuclear operation
7 operating nuclear power reactors
0 operating research and test reactors
7.75 GW(e) installed nuclear capacity (2019)
40.33% nuclear share of domestic energy production (2018)

Regulator: Swedish Radiation Safety Authority
Power Operators: Ringhals AB, Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, OKG Aktiebolag

Nuclear Power stations in Sweden (as of 2019)

Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel

Practices

  • Currently, spent fuel is stored wet onsite for at least 9 months before transport to wet storage at the Clab central storage facility (operational since 1985)
  • In 2009 it was determined that a final DGR would be established near Forsmark with a capacity of 12,000 metric tons spent fuel; it is estimated to be completed in the 2080s
  • Technical siting research and development for the DGR are primary aspects of Swedish nuclear research activities

Obligations

  • Sweden acceded to the Euratom safeguards agreement (INFCIRC/193) in 1995 and the additional protocol went into effect in 2004
  • Sweden signed the Joint Convention in 1997 and ratified in 1999
  • Current laws regulating SNF management are: The Act on Nuclear Activities (1984), Radiation Protection Act (1988), Environmental Code (2000), Act on Financing of Management of Residual Products from Nuclear Activities (2006), and Nuclear Liability Act (1968)
  • Sweden’s SNF policy was initially built on the attractiveness of reprocessing and recycling, but nonproliferation concerns led to a shift towards direct disposal
  • SNF is now treated as waste despite not being defined as waste until in a deep geological repository is constructed
  • Nuclear licensees are responsible for paying into the Nuclear Waste Fund, which covers expenses for spent fuel management and waste disposal
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