The proliferation of conventional weapons, wildlife trafficking and the spread of disease profoundly affects many African countries. The unchecked flow of arms, for example, fuels armed conflict and violence throughout the region; illicitly trafficked wildlife commodities helps fund terrorist activities; and the spread of disease weakens state institutions and capacities to counter security threats. The inextricable links between these challenges pose a risk to national security, threatens stability and development throughout the continent, and presents wider global consequences. Porous borders, the lack of adequate national infrastructure and security controls, and the diversion of global attention to an increasing number of international crises often perpetuate these complex transnational challenges. Local, regional and international approaches to mitigate these risks must emphasise the development of local capacities and include local communities and stakeholders.
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