Agreement Between India and Pakistan on the Advance Notice of Military Exercises
Whereas Pakistan and India recognize the need to jointly formulate an agreement at the Government level on giving advance notice on exercises, manoeuvres and troop movements in order to prevent any crisis situation arising due to misreading of the other side's intentions.
- Therefore, the Governments of Pakistan and India jointly decide that:
1. Their Land, Naval and Air Forces will avoid holding major military manoeuvres and exercises in close proximity to each other. However, if such exercises are held within distances as prescribed in this Agreement, the strategic direction of the main force being exercised will not be towards the other side, nor will any logistics build up be carried out close to it. The following will constitute a major military manoeuvre/exercise for the purposes of this Agreement:
- 1. India-Pakistan International Border
- Concentrations of Corps level (comprising two or more divisions) and above.
- 2. Line of Control and the area between the Manawar Tawi and Ravi Rivers.
- Division level and above.
- a. Land Forces
- b. Naval Forces: Any exercise involving six or more ships of destroyer/frigate size and above, exercising in company and crossing into the other's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).
- c. Air Force: Regional Command level and above.
2. Both sides may not conduct exercises of Land Forces at Divisional level and above within five kilometers (Kms) of the areas specified at Paragraph (1).a. (1) and (2).
3. Both sides will provide notice regarding exercises of Land Forces as follow:
- a. All exercises/concentrations at Divisional level in areas specified at Paragraph (1).a(2).
- b. All exercises/concentrations at Corps level within a distance of seventy five Kms in areas specified at Paragraph (1).a. (1) and (2).
- c. All exercises above Corps level irrespective of the distance.
4. Both sides will give fifteen days prior notice when formations with defensive roles are moved to their operational locations for periodic maintenance of defences.
5. The schedule of major exercises with troops will be transmitted in writing to the other side through diplomatic channels in advance as follows:
- a. Air exercises at Regional Command level and above. -- Fifteen days
- b. Divisional level exercise, and major Naval exercises involving six or more ships of destroyer/frigate size and above, exercising in company and crossing into the other's EEZ.
- c. Corps level exercises -- Sixty days
- d. Army level exercises -- Ninety days
Provided that the above provisions relate to the commencement of moves of formations and units from their permanent locations for the proposed exercises.
6. Information on the following aspects of major exercises will be intimated:
- a. Type and level of exercises.
- b. General area of the exercise on land, air and sea. In respect of air and sea exercises, these will be defined in latitude and longitude.
- c. Planned duration of the activity.
- d. Number and type of formations participating.
- e. Any shifting of forces from other Commands/Corps/Strategic formations envisaged.
- f. The move of strategic formations, particularly armored division, mechanized divisions, air assault divisions/reserve infantry formations and artillery divisions/air defence artillery divisions.
Provided that in respect of major Air and Naval exercises, only the information at Paragraphs (a) to (c) need be intimated.
7. In case some change in exercise area/grouping of participating formations from the previously notified composition is necessitated, the country carrying out the exercise will intimate the details of changes so as to reach the other country at least thirty days in advance in respect of Corps level exercises and above, and fifteen days in advance in respect of divisional level exercises and Naval exercises. In respect of Air exercises, if minor changes to the previously notified details are necessitated, an advance notice of seven days will be provided.
8. Any induction/concentration of additional troops of a division size force and above, within one hundred and fifty kms of areas specified at Paragraph 1.a.(1) and (2), for internal security duties and/or in aid of civil power will be notified to the other side at least two days before the start of their movements, whenever possible. In case of immediate movements, information may be passed on Hot Line to the Army Headquarters of the other country. The force so employed will not move forward their logistic bases/installations and armor/artillery.
9. Each country will be entitled to obtain timely clarification from the country undertaking military manoeuvres/exercises concerning the assembly of formations, the extent, direction of the exercise and the duration.
10.The Naval ships and submarines belonging to the other country are not to close less than three Nautical Miles (NMs) from each other so as to avoid any accident while operating in international waters.
11.Combat aircraft including fighter, bomber reconnaissance, jet military trainer and armed helicopter aircraft will not fly within ten kms of each other's airspace, including the Air Defence Identification Zones (ADIZ), except when such aircraft are operating form Jammu, Pathankot, Amritsar and Suratgarh air bases on the Indian side, as well as Pasrur, Lahore, Vehari and Rahimyar Khan air bases on the Pakistan side, in which case they will maintain a distance of five kms from each other's airspace. Unarmed transport and logistics aircraft including unarmed helicopters and Air Observation Post (AOP) aircraft will be permitted to operate up to 1000 meters from each other's airspace including the ADIZ.
12.Aircraft of either country will refrain from buzzing surface units and platforms of the other country in international waters.
13.This Agreement supersedes all previous understandings in so far as the above points are concerned.
14.This Agreement is subject to ratification. It shall come into force with effect from the date on which the Instruments of Ratification are exchanged.
15.Done at New Delhi on this sixth day of April, 1991.
Shaharyar M. Khan
For the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
For the Government of the Republic of India