For nearly two years, the Central African Republic (CAR) has been plagued by armed violence, with the civil war between the rebel coalition and government forces claiming the lives of thousands of victims and displacing millions more. Armed groups sustain their activities in part by exploiting CAR’s many natural resources and the conflict itself has resulted in a significant humanitarian crisis that will likely have implications for the country’s health and security sectors for years to come. Unfortunately, CAR is not alone in dealing with the complex challenges that impact both sustainable development and security. Many countries in Africa struggle with the unfortunate realities caused by unfettered arms flows within and between conflict zones, environmental crime, and devastating public health crises. These interconnected challenges and their subsequent policy responses are often viewed through a singular lens. Yet the very ways in which they intersect can impact national, regional, and international security, and present wider global consequences.