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Agreement Between Pakistan and India on Prevention of Air Space Violation

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Aware that despite best efforts by both sides, violations of each other’s airspace have occurred from time to time.

Desirous of promoting good neighborly relations between the two countries. Conscious of the fact that renewed efforts should be made to avoid unnecessary alarm.

Have agreed to enter into the following Air Agreement:


    Air Violations
    Article 1


    Henceforth, both sides will take adequate measures to ensure, that air violations of each other’s airspace do not take place. However, if any inadvertent violation does take place, the incident will be promptly investigated and the Headquarters (HQ) of the other Air Force informed of the results without delay, through diplomatic channels.

    Article 2


    Subject to Articles 3,4 and 6, the following restrictions are to be observed by military aircraft of both the forces:

    a. Combat aircraft (to include fighter, bomber, reconnaissance, jet military trainer and armed helicopter aircraft) will not fly within 10 kms of each other’s airspace including ADIZ. No aircraft of any side will enter the airspace over the territorial waters of the other country, except by prior permission.

    b. Unarmed transport and logistics aircraft including unarmed helicopters, and Air Observation Post (AOP) aircraft, will be permitted up to 1000 meters from each other’s airspace including ADIZ.


    Aerial Survey, Supply Dropping, Mercy and Rescue Missions
    Article 3


    In the event of a country having to undertake flights less than 1000 meters from the other’s airspace including ADIZ, for purposes such as aerial survey, supply dropping for mercy missions and aerial rescue missions, the country concerned will give the following information in advance to their own Air Advisors for notification to the Air HQ of the other country:

    a. Type of aircraft/helicopter.

    b. Height of flight within Plus/Minus 1000 ft.

    c. Block number of days (normally not to exceed seven days) when flights are proposed to be undertaken.

    d. Proposed timing of flight, where possible.

    e. Area involved (in latitude and longitude).

    No formal clearance would be required as the flights are being undertaken within own territory.

    Air Exercises Near Border
    Article 4


    In order to avoid any tension being created, prior notice be given with regard to air exercises, or any special air activity proposed to be undertaken close to each other’s airspace including ADIZ, even though the limits as laid down in Article 2 are not likely to be infringed.

    Communication Between PAF and IAF
    Article 5


    In matters of safety and any air operations in emergency situations, the authorities designated by the respective Governments should contact each other by the quickest means of communications available. The Air Advisor shall be kept informed of such contacts. Matters of flight safety and urgent air operations should promptly be brought to the notice of the other side through the authorities designated by using the telephone line established between the Army Headquarters of the two countries.

    Operations from Air Fields Close to the Borders
    Article 6


      4.Rahim Yar Khan.
  • Combat aircraft (as defined in Article 2A. above) operating from the air bases specified below will maintain a distance of 5 kms from each other’s airspace:

    a. Indian Side

    b: Pakistan Side

    Flights of Military Aircraft Through Each Other’s Air Space
    Article 7


    Military aircraft may fly through each other’s airspace with the prior permission of the other country and subject to conditions specified in Appendix A to this Agreement.

    Notwithstanding paragraph 1 of this Article, each country has the sovereign right to specify further conditions, at short notice, for flights of military aircraft through its airspace.


    Validity of Agreement
    Article 8


    This Agreement supersedes all previous understandings in so far as air space violations and over flights and landings by military aircraft are concerned.


    Article 9


    This Agreement is subject to ratification. It shall come into force with effect from the date on which the Instruments of Ratification are exchanged.

    Article 10


    Done at New Delhi on this sixth day of April, 1991.

Shaharyar M. Khan
Foreign Secretary
For the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Muchkund Dubey
Foreign Secretary
For the Government of the Republic of India

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