By Andrew Houk – As the United States
assesses its Afghan strategy and planned beginning of withdrawal of forces in
2011, a close look at the policies of Afghanistan’s neighbors is a useful
piece of the puzzle. In the first of a series of spotlights, we explore
the complex relations between Iran
and the Afghan Shia minority, the Hazara.
only substantial Shia population, the Hazara share a strong connection to Iran that
stretches back centuries. Ethnically,
they represent Afghanistan’s
third largest minority, comprising 10-15 percent of a population of 28 million;
they are neither Persian, Pashtun, nor Turkic, but are believed to be Mongol in
origin. Their traditional homeland, referred to as the Hazarajat, lies in the
Hindu Kush mountains of central Afghanistan.
There are also enclaves in West Kabul, as well as in refugee communities in Iran and Pakistan.
For centuries the Hazara were renowned for their fierce
independence, preserved by their mountainous homeland. However, following their
defeat in 1883 by a British-backed Pashtun king, they were persecuted, enslaved,
and forcefully urbanized; many fled to Iran
and Pakistan. In 1929 this subjugation was followed by intense
Pashtunization campaigns, further eroding Hazara identity. Afghanistan’s wars since 1979 have realigned
the ethnic power balance and been a source of social and political empowerment
for Afghan minorities, particularly at the expense of the Pashtuns.
Tan area represents
As violence continues in Afghanistan, and war weariness
besets Western capitals, the new buzz prescribes a regional and political
solution. However, such a solution will
demand cooperation with an internationally isolated Iran.
As the epicenter of Shia Islam and its only Shia neighbor, Iran’s religious
influence among the Hazara is naturally robust. Historically, the Hazara often
fought in Iran’s armies and visited
the shrines of Shia Imams in Iran
Today, Iran funds mosques, universities,
and charities in Afghanistan.
Many prominent Hazara political leaders spent time in Iran for
education, political refuge, or military support. The Hazara Ayatollah Asif
Mohseni runs a seminary and television studio to broadcast Shia Islam in Kabul.
Cultural interaction between Iran and the Hazara is also strong.
Iranian Farsi is very similar to Dari, which is spoken by half of Afghans and
is the accepted lingua franca. Through television, radio, and the printed
media, Dari enables Iran to pump
its culture throughout Afghanistan.
For better or for worse, Iran
also invests in educational services, including curricula.
Iran has also
hosted many Afghan refugees who fled to Iran in three waves since 1979 (peaking
at 2.9 million in 1989). Currently, there are one million refugees in Iran, 43
percent of whom are Hazaras. A third of these refugees have spent more than
half their life in Iran
and face increasing pressure to repatriate.
Wading only waist deep into the regional and ethnic dynamics
of Afghanistan, it is easy
assume that these religious and linguistic commonalities yield Iran influence.
However, a deeper exploration of this relationship suggests that other factors
may overshadow Iran’s
religious and cultural connection with the Hazara.
Hazara are far from a monolithic demographic. They comprise dozens of tribes in parts of
six provinces. Urban Hazaras such as those of Kabul have very different experiences than
those from the rural and conservative districts of the Hazarajat.
Politically, the Hazara are divided by nationalism,
theology, foreign influence, and competing personalities. The current Hazara
political establishment now faces new challenges from the intellectual elite. In 2009, an independent, western-educated,
Hazara presidential candidate captured 80 percent of Hazara votes. Ranking high
in national education scores, this class of educated elite (including women) is
likely to grow.
As a religious and ethnic minority, the Hazaras will be best
served by success of the American mission to leave a functioning constitutional
democracy in Afghanistan. After two centuries of oppression, their
electoral votes will yield small, yet influential, political power. Hazara women have also entered the political
sphere, most famously, Habiba Sarabi,
first woman provincial governor. Both
socially liberal and religiously conservative Hazaras have everything to lose
if the constitution in Afghanistan
Like many Muslims, the Hazaras hold diverse religious and
political views, ranging from Islamic fundamentalism to liberalism. This ongoing tension was manifested in 2009,
as Hazarai women protestors clashed with Shia religious students over the Shia
Personal Status Law, which effectively legislated the frequency of conjugal
relations in Shia marriages.
The Hazara are also aware that Iranian patronage is not
always in their interest. Throughout the years of conflict, Iran sustained
Hazara militias, but also fought against them. Most notable, was Tehran’s support for the Tajik government in Kabul in 1993 which attacked
rebellious Hazara communities and fought against a revered Hazara icon, affectionately
dubbed “Bab (father) Mazari.” Mounting evidence of Iranian arms being found in
the hands of the Taliban will only further erode trust, as the Taliban
continues to attack southern Hazara communities and blockade supply routes into
Hazaras living in underdeveloped regions may also resent Iran’s heavy investment in the trade
infrastructure of Afghanistan’s
western and northern provinces.
In sum, The Hazara are neither immune to Iran’s
influence, nor a pawn for the Islamic republic. As the US seeks a regional and
political solution in Afghanistan, the Hazara may prove to be a valuable
interlocutor with Iran.
Current efforts to negotiate with Taliban-associated
Pashtuns would be complicated by giving all Afghanistan’s minorities and
neighbors a seat at the table, but ultimately yield stronger agreements. Should
the south and east of Afghanistan
fall under Taliban control, Kabul’s
survival will depend on the cohesiveness of the Afghan national army and police
forces. In both cases, Iran
and the Hazara have the potential to be constructive forces or spoilers.
Photo Credit: Hazara Villagers Meeting, August 2008. By
In Daimerdad district – Hazara villagers are gathering in
a mosque to discuss about the damages of Kuchis war over Hazara people.
Map Credit: Shawn
Woodley, Stimson Center