South Asia Confidence-Building Measures (CBM) Timeline

September 20, 2012

Stimson's South Asia program maintains this timeline chronicling Confidence-Building Measures (CBMs) made in South Asia since 1988, and updates it regularly with new events, agreements, and links to relevant news articles.

 

2014

January 1

India and Pakistan exchange lists of their nuclear installations, as part of an agreement banning the countries from attacking each other's nuclear facilities. The exchange has occured on the first day of each year since 1992.[Dawn, The Hindu]

January 17

Military officials from Pakistan and India agree to further strengthen the ceasefire along the Line of Control (LoC) during a brigadier-level flag meeting held at the Rawalakot-Poonch crossing point at the LoC. [Express Tribune]

January 18 Commerce Ministers agree to establish reciprocal Non-Discriminatory Market Access (NDMA).The ministers also agreed to open the Wagah-Attari border for trade at all times of the year. [The Hindu]
February 12 Trade across the Line of Control (LoC) in Kashmir resumes after being suspended for a month. [Express Tribune]

2013

January 1

India and Pakistan exchange lists of their nuclear installations, as part of an agreement banning the countries from attacking each other's nuclear facilities. The exchange has occured on the first day of each year since 1992.[Express TribuneTimes of India]

January 3 Chief Minister of Gujarat Province, Nardendra Modi, invites a delegation from the Karachi Chamber of Commerce and Industry to attend the sixth Vibrant Gujarat Investor Summit. [Times of India
January 11 Skirmishes between Indian and Pakistani troops across the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir force all cross border trade and travel to stop. [The Hindu
January 15 The Indian government begins a new visa regime for Pakistani passport holders 65 and over, but suspends it after a few hours due to "technichal issues". [Dawn, Express Tribune]
January 16 Directors General of Military Operations in India and Pakistan agree to de-escalate the situation along the Line of Control. Additionally, Pakistani Foreign Minister Hina Rabbani Khar offers to talk with her Pakistani counterpart in a separate attempt to ease tension. [The Hindu, Dawn, NDTV]
January 22 Pakistani Interior Minister, Rehman Malik, announces that all Indian fishermen will soon be relased from Pakistani jails. [The Hindu, Express Tribune]
March 9 Pakistani Prime Minister, Raja Pervez Ashraf, visits the Indian city of Jaipur. [Dawn, Times of India
May 20

India and China sign three memorandums of understanding on the export of buffalo meat, pharmaceuticals, and fishery products in an effort to address their growing trade deficit. [The Hindu,The Economic Times, Journal of Commerce]

August 24 Pakistan releases 337 Indian fishermen. [The Hindu, Dawn]
September 29
Indian and Pakistani prime ministers meet in New York, on sidelines of UN General Assembly. [New York Times, Dawn]
December 24 Indian and Pakistani DGMOs meet at Wagah for the first time in 14 years, reaffirm ceasefire along the LoC. [Dawn, The Hindu]

2012

January 7

Pakistan releases 179 fishermen. [More...]

June 25 Sayed Zabiuddin Ansari, who is also known as Abu Jundal, is apprehended by officials in Saudi Arabia and flown to India, where his apprehension is reported by the Indian media. [More...]

June 27

Pakistan releases Surjeet Singh, an Indian man captured in Pakistan's eastern border region nearly 30 years ago. Singh was initially sentenced to death in 1985, but this was commuted to life in prison in 1989. President Asif Ali Zardari approved his release as a goodwill gesture. [More: AFP, ET]

June 27

Pakistan released over 300 Indian fishermen who were arrested over the past several months for straying over a murky border in the salt marsh of Sir Creek [More: Guardian, Dawn]

June 29 Indian Home Minister P. Chidambaram announces that Ansari was present in the control room in Pakistan during the Mumbai attacks [Times of India, Dawn]
July 1 Pakistan and India exchange lists of prisoners in each others' custody [Dawn, The News]
August 1 The Indian government allows for Pakistani citizens and companies to invest in India in all areas except for defense, space, and atomic energy. This was part of a roadmap drawn up by trade ministers from Pakistan and India. [The Hindu]
August 15 Pakistan releases 55 Indian fishermen as a 'goodwill' gesture to mark Independence day in India [Dawn]
September 8 India and Pakistan sign visa agreement easing travel restrictions for businessmen and introducing a new category of group tourism. The Foreign Ministers also expanded cross-LoC Confidence-Building Measures to allow travel for tourism and pilgrimage. [The Hindu, The News]
September 10 Pakistan releases 48 Indian fishermen, pledges to release another 32, as a goodwill gesture. [The News, The Hindu]
September 29 India releases 46 Pakistani fishermen as a goodwill gesture. [The Hindu, The News, Dawn]
October 25 Pakistan releases Indian prisoner who entered Pakistan without passport in 2007, the prisoner had completed his sentence in 2010 but remained in custody. [The News, Times of India]
October 31 Pakistan's cabinet approves visa liberalization deal signed with India in September. [Dawn]
November 11 Pakistan releases 15 Indian fishermen on humanitarian grounds. [The News]
November 20 Pakistani President Zardari confirms ratification of the visa liberalization deal between India and Pakistan. [Dawn, The Hindu]
December 11 Indian Supreme Court orders release of Pakistani prisoner, Dr Khalil Christi. [Dawn]
December 14 Pakistan and India formalize the new eased visa regime. [Dawn]
December 19 Border guards from India and Pakistan hold quarterly meeting in Amritsar to discuss border security issues. [The News]

 

2011

January 1

India and Pakistan exchange lists of their respective nuclear facilities [More...]

February 6

Foreign Secretaries Nirupama Rao and Salmon Bashir agree to resume structured dialogue [More...]

March 27

Pakistani President Zardari remitted the sentence of Indian convict Gopal Das [More...]

March 28-29

India and Pakistan's home secretaries meet in New Delhi. Both sides committed to fight terrorism and provide information on on-going terrorism investigations.

March 30

India and Pakistan's prime ministers meet for the semi-finals of the 2011 Cricket World Cup in New Delhi. [More...]

April 11

Pakistan frees 89 prisoners and fishermen. [More...]

April 14

China and India resumed high-level defense exchanges, agreed to hold the first meeting of a strategic and economic dialogue mechanism, and annouced the start of the "Year of China-India Exchange" program, which will allow 500 young Indians to come to China while China supports Chinese language teaching in Indian middle and high schools. [More...]

June 23

India and Pakistan's Foreign Secretaries meet in Islamabad, possibly signaling upcoming Foreign Minister-level talks. [More...]

July 27

The Foreign Ministers of India and Pakistan meet in New Delhi.  [More...]

September 29

India and Pakistan announced a plan to "normalize" bilateral trade. [More...]

October 13

Pakistani Foreign Minister Hina Rabbani Khar says that Pakistan had made a principled decision to grant Most Favoured Nation (MFN) status to India [More...]

November 2

Pakistan approves Most Favoured Nation (MFN) status for India. [More...]

November 10

Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh announces his intention to move toward a Preferential Trade Agreement with Pakistan under SAFTA that will lead to zero customs duty on all traded goods by 2016. [More...]

December 27

India, Pakistan agree to extend ballistic missile test notification and nuclear confidence building measures. [More...]  

 

2010

January 1

India and Pakistan exchange lists of their respective nuclear facilities. [More...]

August 13

India offers $5 million in flood aid to Pakistan [More...]

September 1

India offers an additional $20 million in flood aid to Pakistan [More...]

September 5

Pakistan releases 80 Indian fishermen [More...]

 

2009

January 1

For the 18th consecutive year, India and Pakistan exchange lists of their respective nuclear facilities (see entry for December 31, 1988). The two countries also exchanged lists of Pakistanis held in Indian prisons and Indians held in Pakistani prisons (see entry for May 31, 2008). [More...]

June 15

Chinese President Hu Jintao and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh agree to establish a hotline between the Prime Ministers of India and China. [More...]

July 16

The Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan, meeting on the sidelines of a summit of the Non-Aligned Movement in Egypt, issue a joint statement "charting the way forward in India - Pakistan relations." [More...]

 

2008

February 5

India and Pakistan sign an agreement allow regular contact between India's military-funded Institute of Defence Studies and Analysis (IDSA) and Pakistan's state-run Institute for Strategic Studies (ISS). The purpose is to build channels of communication at the level of scholars. [More...]

February 26

The first meeting of a joint Indo-Pak judicial committee of eight retired senior judges from Pakistan and India was held to look into the condition of prisoners jailed in both countries, seek release of those whose sentences have been served, and to discuss all related matters, including future procedures. [More...]

March 3

Kashmir Singh, an Indian national in prison in Pakistan for 35 years on charges of spying for India and sentenced to death, is released. [More...]

March 19

A Pakistani national arrested in India over two years ago on charges of spying and possessing fake currency was released and handed over to Pakistani authorities at the Wagah land border after being acquitted by a court. [More...]

April 4

"Khuda Kay Liye" or "In the Name of God" becomes the first Pakistani film in four decades to be approved for release in Indian theaters. [More...]

April 24

India joins a signed a framework agreement with Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and Pakistan on a $7.6 billion gas pipeline project. The line will be 1,680-km Turkemenistan -Afghanistan- Pakistan -India (TAPI), supply 3.2 billion cubic feet per day (90 MMSCMD) and gas flows are expected from 2015. Pakistan and India have agreed to share equally in the gas volume. [More...]

May 21

The Foreign Ministers of India and Pakistan agree to a series of Kashmir-specific CBMs, including a triple-entry permit to facilitate crossing the Line of Control. [More...] The two ministers also agree to provide consular access to prisoners in each others' countries. [More...]

May 25

Pakistan's top rock band, Junoon, was allowed by the Indian government to perform at Srinagar in the biggest musical event in the disputed valley in decades. [More...]

June 24

India and Pakistan, meeting under the aegis of the Joint Anti-Terror Mechanism, agreed to exchange information to prevent terrorism and violent attacks. [More...]

September 25

Pakistani President Zardari and Indian Prime Minister Singh formally announced the opening of several trade routes between the two countries. The Wagah-Atari road link and the Khokrapar-Munnabao rail link will both be opened to trade, as will the cross-LoC Srinagar-Muzaffarabad and Poonch-Rawalakot roads. [More...]

October 9

A delegation of business leaders from Pakistan-administered Kashmir visits the Indian-controlled side to discussed cross-LoC trade. [More...]

October 21

Trade across the Line of Control commences as the first trucks cross the line that divides Kashmir. Trade is limited to 21 items, and can take place on two days each week. [More...]

October 22

A second trade route across the Line of Control is opened. The route connects the cities of Rawalkot and Poonch. [More...]

November 25

Pakistan frees 101 Indian prisoners, including 99 fishermen, in advance of a meeting in Islamabad between the Home Minister of India and the Federal Interior Secretary of Pakistan. [More...]

November 25

At the fifth round of home secretary-level talks, Pakistan and India agree to enhance cooperation between their civilian investigation and security agencies to deal with several cross-border issues. [More...]

December 27

In the aftermath of the Mumbai attacks by Islamic extremists that result in over 180 fatalities, the Indian and Pakistani Directors General of Military Operations make unscheduled use of their hotline to discuss troop movements along their border. One likely topic of discussion was Indian troop rotations to exercise areas near the Pakistan border and small-scale counter-deployments by Pakistani troops. [More...]

 

2007

February 21

India and Pakistan sign agreement on "Reducing the Risk from Accidents Relating to Nuclear Weapons." [More...]

July 6

India's University of Mumbai and Pakistan's University of Sindh sign a memorandum of understanding for exchange of faculty, scholars, and students. [More...]

August 14

India released 72 Pakistani nationals, including 48 fishermen and 24 prisoners from Indian jails, and Pakistan released 135 Indian nationals, including 100 fishermen and 35 prisoners, from its jails. [More...]

August 16

India released and repatriated 16 Pakistani militants from eight jails in Jammu and Kashmir. [More...]

October 1

The first overland truck route between India and Pakistan is opened at the Wagah border crossing. [More...]

October 19

Pakistan and India hold the Fifth Round of talks to review nuclear and missile related CBMs as part of the Composite Dialogue process. The second round of the Joint Anti-Terrorism Mechanism (JATM) was held the following week. [More...]

 

2006

January 1

India and Pakistan exchange lists of their respective nuclear installations and facilities. [More...]

January 20

Bus service from Lahore to Amristar begins. [More...]

January 7-February 19

India-Pakistan cricket series in Pakistan. [More...]

February 1

Pakistan and India agree to open rail links between Munnabao in Rajasthan and Khokhrapar in Sind on February 18th. [More...]

February 7

India redeploys 5000 troops from Jammu and Kashmir citing "improvement" in situation. [More...]

February 18

India and Pakistan resume train service after 40 years. [More...]

February 22

Pakistani journalists travel to India. [More...]

February 27

Fibre optic link between Armitsar and Lahore becomes operational. [More...]

March 7

Pakistan and India agree to expand air service agreement. [More...]

March 7

Indo-Pak night bus service from Ferozepur and Fazilka to Ludhiana-Chandigarh resumes. [More...]

March 8

India and Pakistan agree in principle to expand airline service between the two nations. [More...]

March 22

India and Pakistan agree to jointly fight human trafficking, counterfeit currency trade, and illegal immigration. [More...]

March 24

Amritsar-Nankana Sahib bus service is flagged off. [More...]

May 3

India and Pakistan reach an agreement to revive trade in Kashmir. [More...]

May 24

India and Pakistan fail to reach an agreement to withdraw troops from the Siachen Glacier. [More...]

May 25

India announces the establishment of five working groups based on issues central to the Kashmir problem. [More...]

May 30

India and Pakistan formally agree to trade raw products between divided regions of Jammu and Kashmir. [More...]

June 1

India and Pakistan agree to host festivals displaying each other's movies. [More...]

September 16

President Musharraf and Prime Minister Singh agree to "put in place an India-Pakistan anti-terrorism institutional mechanism to identify and implement counter-terrorism initiatives and investigations." [Joint Statement] [More...]

December 15

India and Pakistan sign a revised shipping protocol that removes restrictions in place since 1975. The protocol allows lifting of third country cargo by Indian and Pakistani vessels from each other's ports and it also lifted the restriction that the cargo destined for the other country could be carried only by an Indian or Pakistani vessel. [More...]

 

2005

January 1

Both countries exchange lists of nuclear installations and facilities. [More...]

January 6

Pakistan releases 266 Indian fishermen arrested in 2004. [More...]

February 16-17

Indian Foreign Minister Natwar Singh visits Islamabad. [More...]

February 28-April 18

Pakistan's cricket team travels to India for the first time in six years. [More...]

April 7

First bus service from Srinagar to Muzaffarabad is flagged off by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and United Progressive Alliance chairperson Sonia Gandhi. [More...]

May 10

Expert level meeting in Rawalpindi held on the establishment of a communication link between Pakistan Maritime Security Agency and Indian Coast Guard. Both sides resolve outstanding issues in a Memorandum of Understanding. [More...]

August 5-6

Talks on nuclear confidence building measures commence between high level Indian and Pakistani experts. [More...]

August 8

Expert level meeting on conventional confidence building measures. [More...]

August 29-30

Expert level meeting on terrorism and drug trafficking. [More...]

September 1

Meeting of Foreign Secretaries in Islamabad where they review the implementation of the peace process. [More...]

September 2

India allows Pakistan access to 208 prisoners. [More...]

September 12 India and Pakistan agree to exchange 585 prisoners. [More...]

October 3

Signing of an agreement on advance notification of ballistic missile tests. [More...] [Full Text...]

October 4

Agreement reached on the establishment of hot line between the two their maritime security agencies to facilitate early exchange of information regarding apprehended fishermen who inadvertently stray into the other side's territorial waters. [More...]

October-November

Pakistan accepts 25 tons of food, medicine, tents, blankets, plastic sheets from India after the earthquake. [More...]

 

2004

January 1

Air links between the two countries resume. [More...]

January 1

Both countries exchange the list of their nuclear installations and facilities. [More...]

January 4-6

Vajpayee and Musharraf hold direct talks on January 5 at the 12th SAARC summit in Islamabad. [More...] [Joint Statement]

January 15

Passenger and freight rail service resumes between Attari and Lahore. [More...]

February 17-18

Pakistani and Indian Foreign Secretaries meet in Murree, Pakistan for May-June preparatory talks. [More...]

February 20

First flag meeting between Indian and Pakistani army units in three years takes place in Chorbat La sector in India. [More...]

February

India and Pakistan agree on a five-point agenda to initiate dialogue process. [More...]

March 10-April18

Indian cricket team travels to Pakistan for a historic cricket series, the first at a non-neutral site since 1989. [More...]

June 15-16

Meeting of narcotics officials in Islamabad where both parties agree to share information and adopt a coordinated strategy to prevent drug trafficking and smuggling between the two countries. [More...]

June 19-20

Delegations from Pakistan and India convene in New Delhi to hold expert-level talks on nuclear CBMs [Joint Statement...]

June 20-21

Foreign Ministers of both countries meet at the Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD) meeting in China where they reaffirm their intention to open both countries' consulates in Karachi and Bombay. [More...]

June 26-27

Meeting of Foreign Secretaries in New Delhi when they discuss dialogue on Peace and Security and Jammu and Kashmir. [More...]

June 29-July 2

Foreign Ministers of both countries meet at the ASEAN Regional forum in Jakarta where Pakistan is formally accepted as a member of the ARF after India drops its objections. [More...]

July 20-21

Foreign Ministers of both countries meet at the SAARC Council of Ministers meeting in Islamabad. [More...]

August 9

Both countries carry out an exchange of six prisoners of war at the Wagah border post. [More...]

August 11-12

Meeting of commerce secretaries in Islamabad to discuss dialogue on economic and commercial cooperation. Both sides agree to promote bilateral trade ties and enhance cooperation in various sectors. [More...]

August 31

India and Pakistan exchange 55 prisoners along the Wagah border crossing. [More...]

September 8

Meeting of Foreign Ministers in Delhi where the two sides agree on thirteen points, and indicating willingness for a 'road map' for peace process. [More...]

September 19

India announces it will ease visa rules for visiting Pakistani journalists, doctors and academics. [More...]

September 24

President Musharraf and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh meet for talks in New York on the occasion of the United Nations General Assembly. [More...]

October 4-11

Pakistani journalists visit Jammu and Kashmir. [More...]

November 9

Twenty-five Pakistani prisoners handed over by India at the Wagah border crossing. [More...]

November 16

On the eve of a visit to Jammu Kashmir, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh announces to reduce the deployment of troops. [More...]

November 21

Over 4,000 Indian Sikh pilgrims arrive for a visit to religious sites in Pakistan. [More...]

November 23

Pakistan Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz travels to India for the first time as Chairperson of SARRC. [More...]

December 14-15

Indian and Pakistani delegations hold expert level talks on Nuclear CBMs in Islamabad. Expert level talks on Conventional CBMs held on December 15th. [More...]

 

2003

January 1

Both countries exchange lists of their nuclear installations and facilities.

May 26

India announces resumption of Delhi-Lahore bus service and release of 70 Pakistani fishermen and 60 civilian prisoners. [More...]

September 25

Musharraf calls for a ceasefire along the Line of Control (LoC) at the UN General Assembly in New York. [More...]

November 25

India and Pakistan implement a formal ceasefire along the International Border and the Actual Ground Position Line in Jammu and Kashmir at midnight. [More...]

 

2002

January 1

Both countries exchange lists of their nuclear installations and facilities.

 

2001

January 1

Both countries exchange lists of their nuclear installations and facilities.

 

2000

January 1

Both countries continue to exchange lists of their nuclear installations and facilities.

 

1999

January 1

Both countries exchange lists of their nuclear installations and facilities.

February 20

Bus service between New Delhi and Lahore initiated by Prime Minister Atul Vajpayee. [More...]

February

Memorandum of understanding reached during Indian Prime Minister Atul Vajpayee's historic visit to Pakistan. [MoU Full Text]

 

1998

January 1

Both countries exchange lists of their nuclear installations and facilities.

 

1997

January 1

Both countries exchange lists of their nuclear installations and facilities.

 

1996

1996

India grants Most Favored Nation status to Pakistan. [More...]

January 1

Both countries exchange lists of their nuclear installations and facilities.

 

1995

January 1

Both countries exchange lists of their nuclear installations and facilities.

 

1994

January 1

Both countries exchange lists of their nuclear installations and facilities.

 

1993

January 1

Even during a low point in relations, both countries exchange lists of their nuclear installations and facilities.

 

1992

January 1

India and Pakistan exchange lists of their nuclear installations and facilities under 1988 agreement on Prohibition of Attack Against Nuclear Installations and Facilities. [More...]

August 19

Joint Declaration on the Complete Prohibition of Chemical Weapons concluded in New Delhi. [Full Text]

 

1991

April 6

Agreement on Advance Notification on Military Exercises, Maneuvers and Troop Movements signed in New Delhi. [Full Text]

April 6

Agreement on Prevention of Airspace Violations and for Permitting Overflights and Landings by Military Aircraft signed in New Delhi. [Full Text]

 

1988

December 31

Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack Against Nuclear Installations and Facilities signed in Islamabad. [Full Text]